Skip to content

FIRST SETTLEMENT MARCH 1788

NORFOLK ISLAND

FIRST SETTLEMENT

MARCH 1788

 

January 30th.

This [day] Lieut. King came on board to consult me respecting the Characters of 5 or 6 women whom he meant to take wt. him to New Norfolk, being by his Excellency A: Philip, appointed Governor of that Island, for wh. place he was to set out in abt. 8 or 10 Days — r. Jameson the first Surgeons Mate on board the Sirius (a very sensible good dispos’d man) is going wt. him as Surgeon. 

He takes wt. him 8 of the Convict men & 6 women — he has made choice of such of both Sexes who behaviour on board during the Voyage has been the least exceptionable & has held out such encouragement to them upon their behaving properly, as must render their situation much more comfort able than it could have been had they been at Port Jackson; 

At the same time he assured them that he shd. not take upon him to punish them in case of misbehaviour, that, as the greatest punishment he thought he cd. inflict upon them he shd. send them back again to Port Jackson there to be deal with according to their demerits.

He also assured them they wd. not be hard work’d & wd. be convey’d home to England if they chose it, upon the expiration of their term of Transportation — He also informed them that it was the Governor’s pleasure, that if any partiality or reciprocal affection shd. take place between the Male & Female Convicts going there or after their arrival at N: Norfolkthey might marry, & that he had authorized the Surgeon, Mr. Jameson, to perform that Office & after a time the Clergyman wd. be sent there to remarry them.

The Women I recommended & who consented to go wt. him were Elizth. Lee — Elizth. Hipsely — Elizth. Colly — Olivia Gascoin — Ann Inett — Ann Yates was recommended as a very fit person to go, having uniformly behaved well during the whole of the Voyage, But wishing rather to continue where she was — another was fixt on in her room. 

The fact that she was 7 months pregnant at the time probably played a part in her decision. Presumably she was not disadvantaged by her choice’ as she later became the mistress of Judge-Advocate David Collins, bearing him two children, Marianne Laetitia and George Yeates/Collins.

Wright

New Norfolk is situated abt. a fortnights sail to the Northward from hence, & is more adapted to the Cultivation of Sugar Canes, Indigo &ca. than N: Holland. Lieut. King being Aid de Camp to his Excellency, & being appointed Governor of New Norfolk — Governor P. appointed Lieut. G: Johnstone his Aid de Camp in his room.
Bowes journal 

At day-light on the 6th, I left the Supply with two boats, having in them all the persons belonging to the settlement, together with the tents a part of the provisions, and some of the most useful tools; all which we landed, and began clearing a small piece of ground to erect the tents on: the colours were hoisted, and before sun-set, every person and article belonging to the settlement were on shore, and the tents pitched. Before the colours were hauled down, I assembled my small colony under them, (Lieutenant Ball and some of his officers being present,) and drank the healths of his Majesty, the Queen, the Prince of Wales, and success to the settlement: and, as we had no other way of testifying our loyalty, we gave three cheers on the occasion… As I had only twelve men, (one of whom was seventy-two years old, and another a boy of fifteen) exclusive of the mate and surgeon, my progress for some time must of course be very slow.

King journal 

I embarked the following persons, who were appointed to go along with me, viz. Mr. James Cunningham, master’s mate of the Sirius; Mr. Thomas Jameson, surgeon’s first mate of the Sirius; Mr. John Altree, assistant to the surgeon; Roger Morly, weaver; William Westbrook, and —— Sawyer, seamen; Charles Heritage, and John Batchelor, marines; with nine male and six female convicts; in all, twenty-three persons.

 

Phillip Gidley King and his party of 23 colonists

6th March 1788 – Supply 

Lieut. Philip Gidley King – Commandant [mistress: Anne Innet] 

Thomas Jamison- Surgeon, 1st Mate of Sirius [m: Eliz. Colley]

John Turnpenny Altree – Surgeon’s Asst., ex-Surgeon Lady Penrhyn

Roger Morley – Seaman ex Sirius

Charles Heritage- Marine ex Sirius

James Cunningham – Midshipman and master’s mate of Sirius William Westbrook – Seaman ex Sirius

John Batchelor- Marine ex Sirius

 

John Williams- Convict ex Charlotte [ass. KINGS MAN]

Charles McClellan – Convict ex Alexander, 14 yrs. old  [CONSPIRATOR]

John Mortimore – Convict ex Charlotte [father] [CONSPIRATOR]

Noah Mortimore – Convict ex Charlotte [son] [CONSPIRATOR]

Edward Westlake – Convict ex Charlotte [CONSPIRATOR]

Edward Garth – Convict ex Scarborough [m: Susan Gough] [ass. King’s man]

Nathaniel Lucas – Convict ex Scarborough [m: Olive Gascoigne] [King’s man]

Richard Widdicombe – Convict ex Charlotte, 72 yrs old [King’s man]

John Rice- Convict ex Charlotte [King’s man]

 

Anne Innet- Convict ex Lady Penrhyn[King’s man] [KING]

Elizabeth Colley – Convict ex Lady Penrhyn[King’s man] [JAMISON]

Olive Gascoigne- Convict ex Lady Penrhyn[King’s man] [LUCAS]

Susan Gough- Convict ex Friendship[King’s man] [GARTH]

Elizabeth Lee – Convict ex Lady Penrhyn

Elizabeth Hipsley – Convict ex Lady Penrhyn

*

Mr. Phillip King

Philip Gidley King, the Commandant of the First Settlement, was a Second Lieutenant from the Sirius. He joined the Navy at the age of twelve years as a Captain’s Servant, and already seen 17 years of Navy service prior to hisNorfolk Island appointment. At the age of 15 years he was promoted from Able Seaman to Midshipman, and a further five years were to elapse before he received a post as Second Lieutenant. In 1780 he was transferred to H.M.S. Ariadne commanded by Captain Arthur Phillip; when the Captain transferred to H.M.S. Europe King went with him. When Captain Phillip was appointed to lead the First Fleet, he requested King’s appointment as Second Lieutenant on Sirius. 

The 8th January ushered a male child into the world, and as he was the first born on the island, he was baptized by the name of Norfolk. 

1 Male Child born. Norfolk.

 

John Altree

John Turnpenny AItree had arrived at Port Jackson as Surgeon of Lady Penrhyn although he was said to be unequal to the task and on the voyage out much of his work was performed by Arthur Bowes Smyth.

 

James Cunningham

Lieut. King’s executive included James Cunningham a midshipman and master’s mate from Sirius, drowned 6th Aug. 1788. ‘a good young man’

DROWNED 

Mr. Thomas Jamieson

Thomas Jamison who had been Surgeon First Mate on Sirius. Jamison was an MA from theUniversity ofDublin and was a mature 43 years of age when he arrived at Norfolk.

[m: Eliz. Colley]

 

Roger Morley  

Roger Morley had been seamen Seaman constable aboard Sirius Morley has been described as an adventurer who had been a master weaver. Weaver. sent to grow flax – store-keeper. During Major Ross’s period of control Morley acted as a Storekeeper before returning toEngland 

William Benson Westbrook

William Westbrook seamen aboard Sirius but was also recorded as a Sawyer. [??]

Drowned 6th Aug 1788 DROWNED

 

Charles Heritage

John Bachelor

BATCHELOR [BATCHLER]

John [William]

HMS Sirius

Marine private

.

 

Charles Heritage and John Batchelor had been marines on the Sirius.drowned fishing 15/6/1788

On the 17th, I detected John Batchelor, one of the marines, in my tent, stealing rumout of a small vessel, which contained what was drawn off to serve the officers and men belonging to the Sirius; and was kept in my tent, as I had not a more secure place to put it in. In the afternoon, I assembled the settlement, and punished the thief with three dozen lashes; causing him to be led by a halter to the place of punishment: I also stopped the deficiency of rum out of his allowance.

This Morning detected Jno Batchelor Marine in my Tent stealing Rum out of a Barreca, in which it was kept, As the Allowance of ye Officers & Men belonging to the Sirius, which I kept in my Tent not having a more secure place to put it in. An Attempt of ye same sort was made on the 2nd Instant but at that time I could not fix on the Thief — In the Afternoon I assembled the people together & punished him with 1 Dozen lashes for quitting his work, one dozn lashes for breaking into ye Kings Stores, & 1 Dozen for Theft, on measuring ye remaing Rum in ye barreca I find it 7 pints Short. ordered his allowance to be stopt till ye deficiency is made good.

At day-light in the morning of the 15th, the midshipman and four men went out in the boat to fish: they were returning at nine o’clock, and in passing the point of the reef, the fine weather, and the absence of surf, threw them so much off their guard, that the boat shipped a sea which filled her, and washed John Batchelor, a marine, overboard: the boat, with the rest of the men, drove in among the rocks to the westward of the landing-place, where they were saved with great difficulty, having received violent contusions. The boat was got round to the crab and hove up; she was much damaged, and her repairs were likely to take up a considerable time, as I had only two men who could assist in this business.

at daylight sent the boat with the Mate & 4 Men without the reef to fish. at 9 made the signal for them to return. In passing the point of the reef, the fineness of the Weather & there being little or no surf, threw them so much off their guard, that the boat ship’d a sea, which filled her & wash’d Jno Batchelor Mar[ine] overboard, who was drowned,

* 

Six male convicts who arrived at Port Jackson on Charlotte came from Devon and were all convicted at Exeter. 

Richard Widdicombe

WADDICOMB [WIDDICOMBE, WIDDECOMBE, WIDDICOMB, WEDDICOMB] Richard Charlotte Exeter 20 03 1786 7 years

Richard Widdicombe who stole a winch and other goods valued at £4/6/-. He was said to be seventy-two years of age.

He was tried at Exeter, Devonon 20 March 1786 for stealing a winch and other goods with a value of 86 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and left Englandon the Charlotteaged about 23 at that time[??] (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded.  

Notes: Partner in the original crime was Henry Humphreys.

Report from Dunkirk hulk was “tolerably decent and orderly’ 

John Williams

WILLIAMS [WILLIAM]

John

Charlotte

Exeter

07 08 1786

7 years – died 6th Aug. 1788

 ‘one of the best of the convicts’

 

John Williams and John Rice were also convicted at Exeter for stealing.

He was tried at Exeter, Devonon 7 August 1786 for stealing steel with a value of 19 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and left Englandon the Charlotteaged about 43 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded. 

Notes: Report fromDunkirkhulk was “tolerably decent and orderly”.

Difficult to distinguish from the others with the same name, as well as later arrivals.

drowned 6th Aug. 1788

Edward Garth

GARTH

[GASH]

Edward

Scarborough

LondonOld Bailey

08 12 1784 /
23 02 1785

7 years. Death commuted

 

Edward Garth Gash 24 English Convict Male Scarborough

8/12/84 Old Bailey Larceny Animal 340/- Death – 23 02 1785 Commuted to Transportation 7 years

Norfolk Island 1788 to 1807 then Tasmania. Married Susannah Garth 1795. 13 December 1823, Tasmania  

He was tried at Old Bailey, Londonon 8 December 1784 for stealing livestock (two cows) with a value of 340 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years having been originally sentenced to death, and left Englandon the Scarboroughaged about 23 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded. He died in 1823. 

Notes: On 6 July 1789 he was ordered to receive 100 lashes for the theft of three quarts of wheat. Night watch member by the end of December 1791. Married Susannah Garth in 1795 – a daughter had been born to them in 1789 and they had six more children in later years. Having the same surname, there is debate as to whether they were related.

At the Old Bailey Edward Garth was sentenced to hang for his crime of stealing two live cows valued at £17. Luckily the sentence was reduced to seven years transportation allowing him to ultimately continue his dairying interests atHobartTown. Garth later married Susan Gough about 1795. 

Nathaniel Lucas –  carpenter

LUCAS

[LUCUS]

Nathaniel

Scarborough

LondonOld Bailey

07 07 1784

7 years

 

Nathaniel Lucas had been a fellow passenger of Edward Garth on Scarborough, and married Olive Gascoigne from the founding party. Nathaniel was a carpenter and joiner from London, who occupied the role of overseer and master carpenter in later years. His seven-year sentencecame from the theft of muslin caps, handkerchiefs, aprons, and towels valued at fifty-two shillings. 

Nathaniel Lucas Lucus Convict Male Scarborough 7/7/84 Old Bailey Larceny Apparel 40 Transportation 7 years Carpenter-Joiner 24 English Married Olive Gascoigne 1788. Norfolk Island. Drowned when suicided 1818. May 1818, Liverpool Stayed 1 

He was tried at Old Bailey, Londonon 7 July 1784 for stealing clothing with a value of 40 shillings and left Englandon the Scarboroughaged about 23 at that time (May 1787). His occupation was listed as carpenter. He died in 1818.

Notes: Became increasingly addicted to alcohol before his death by suicide. There are no surviving records of his marriage to Olive Gascoigne on Norfolk Island. They had thirteen children, although twins were killed at 2 years old by a tree felled by him falling on their house. 

Olive Gascoigne Gascoin, Gascoygne, Gaskins, Olivia Convict Female Lady Penrhyn 5/3/85 Worcester Robbery 77.5 Death – Commuted to Transportation 7 years Servant 25 English Married Nathaniel Lucas in 1788. Norfolk Island 1788 to 1805. June 1830, Tasmania Stayed 

John Mortimer

MORTIMORE

[MORTIMER]

John

Charlotte

Exeter

20 03 1786

7 years

 

Three of the Devon men, John Mortimore, Noah Mortimore and Edward Westlake, had been jointly tried at Exeter for stealing a sheep valued at twelve shillings, and forty pounds of mutton valued at ten shillings. The sheepstealing charge was dismissed but each received seven years transportation on the second count. John and Noah may have been father and son as John was stated to be 70 years of age when he received 100 lashes onNorfolk Island in 1791. 

John Mortimer Mortimore Convict Male Charlotte 20/3/86 Exeter Larceny Animal 12 Transportation 7 years None 54 English Norfolk Island February 1788 and later Tasmania in 1808. November 1812, Tasmania Stayed 1

He was tried at Exeter, Devon on 20 March 1786 for stealing mutton with a value of 10 shillings and left Englandon the Charlotteaged about 54 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded. He died in 1812. 

Notes: Partners in the original crime were son Noah Mortimer and Edward Westlake. Report from Dunkirk hulk was “tolerably decent and orderly”. Received 100 lashes on 15 January 1793 for “stealing wheat and neglecting his work”.

 

Noah Mortimer

MORTIMORE

[MORTIMER]

Noah

Charlotte

Exeter

20 03 1786

7 years

 

Three of the Devon men, John Mortimore, Noah Mortimore and Edward Westlake, had been jointly tried at Exeter for stealing a sheep valued at twelve shillings, and forty pounds of mutton valued at ten shillings. The sheepstealing charge was dismissed but each received seven years transportation on the second count. John and Noah may have been father and son as John was stated to be 70 years of age when he received 100 lashes onNorfolk Island in 1791.

Noah Mortimer Mortimore Convict Male Charlotte 20/3/86 Exeter Larceny Animal 12 Transportation 7 years None 26 English Norfolk Island February 1788 and later Tasmania. Married Mary Cottle. Unknown Unknown 1

He was tried at Exeter, Devon on 20 March 1786 for stealing mutton with a value of 10 shillings and left Englandon the Charlotteaged about 26 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded.

Notes: Partners in the original crime were father John Mortimer and Edward Westlake. Report from Dunkirk hulk was “tolerably decent and orderly”. Received 60 lashes on 8 April 1789 for refusing to work, and 

at 4 P.M. punished Noah Mortimer Convict with 5 Dozen Lashes for refusing to Work, on being ordered by the overseer, this is the sixth offence of the Kind he has been guilty of

24 lashes on 24 October 1789 for not working.

Punished Noah Mortimer, Thos Watson & Jno Holmes Convicts with 2 Dozen lashes each for loitering & Idling their time at Work. Confined Noah Mortimer, Wm Francis & Samuel Pickett Convicts as principals After which discharged Noah Mortimer (who did not appear to be so guilty as S. Pickett & W. Francis) keeping Irons on him as also on Thos Watson. they being both in some measure Guilty

John Rice

RICE

John

Charlotte

Exeter

18 07 1785

7 years. Death commuted

 

John Williams and John Rice were also convicted atExeter for stealing.

He was tried at Exeter, Devon on 18 July 1785 for burglary with a value of 19 shillings and left Englandon the Charlotteaged about 27 at that time (May 1787). His occupation was listed as rope maker.

Notes: Report from Dunkirk hulk was “at times troublesome”. Night watch member.

‘Mr. King’s right-hand men’

 

Edward Westlake

WESTLAKE

[WESTLOCKE]

Edward

Charlotte

Exeter

20 03 1786

7 years

 

Three of the Devon men, John Mortimore, Noah Mortimore and Edward Westlake, had been jointly tried at Exeter for stealing a sheep valued at twelve shillings, and forty pounds of mutton valued at ten shillings. The sheepstealing charge was dismissed but each received seven years transportation on the second count. John and Noah may have been father and son as John was stated to be 70 years of age when he received 100 lashes onNorfolk Island in 1791.

He was tried at Exeter, Devon on 20 March 1786 for stealing mutton with a value of 10 shillings and left Englandon the Charlottewith age unknown. He had no occupation recorded. He died in 1828.

Notes: Partners in the original crime were John Mortimer and Noah Mortimer.Westlake was married to an Elizabeth Mortimer. Report from Dunkirk hulk was “tolerably decent and orderly”. Night watch member.

 

Charles McClellan

McCLELLAN [McLENNAN]

Charles

HMS Supply

.

.

.

*McCELLAN   SUPPLY Convict Servant [probably to ROGER MORLEY Seaman – SUPPLY – Weaver, sent to grow flax. ]

Is the convict boy 

The remaining prisoner was Charles McClellan or McLaughlin of Durham who was 14 years of age. His crime was stealing a purse containing fourteen shillings and sixpence at Sutherland on Sea. One assumes that the sentence “Guilty of Pettit (sic) Larceny – value lOd to be transported for the term of seven years. . .” was framed to avoid his receiving the Capital punishment.

on the 20th, a convict boy was detected stealing the surgeon’s allowance of rum, out of his tent. This boy was only fifteen years old, and was transported for seven years. I ordered him to be punished with an hundred lashes, which I hoped would have a good effect.

In ye afternoon Charles Mac Lennand a boy of 14 yrs old was discovered stealing Rum out of the Surgeons Tent. punished him with 3 Dozn lashes. I have great reason to suppose some others were concerned with him, but not having sufficient proof against them, I forbear taking any notice of it, being determined & having assured the people that the next person which I detected in any theft whatever would be made a severe & dreadfull example of —

 

On the 7th August, I was obliged to punish one of the convicts with thirty-six lashes, for stealing a hatch of eggs from under a hen which was sitting on them.

punish’d Chas M’lennan with 3 Dozn lashes for stealing Eggs

On the 10th, I was obliged to inflict a punishment of forty lashes on one of the convicts, for making use of very threatening and seditious language. I had received orders from Governor Phillip, to make a saving of the salt provisions, whenever fish or turtle could be obtained, in order that they might last as long as possible: the putting this order in execution when the turtle were caught, produced murmuring; but, when the fish was issued on the 9th, the convict who was punished, said, “the people (meaning those in the settlement) were fools for suffering their salt provisions to be stopped,” and “that the convicts would soon be the strongest, and then it would be seen who were masters.” As I thought this language deserved punishment, I assembled the people, and pointed out to them, that, independent of the orders I had received, I saw the greatest necessity for making every possible saving of the provisions: I represented to them that misfortunes might happen to vessels, provisions might get spoiled, and many other accidents might happen, which would render it necessary for us to go to a short allowance; and, that the greater quantity of provisions which could be saved would be so much the better for the whole settlement: I concluded with assuring them, that I should invariably attend to my orders, and put them in execution; and that a very severe punishment would be inflicted on any who presumed to excite sedition, or behaved improperly on that, or any other pretext.

Punished Charles McLennan Convict with 3 Dozen lashes for uttering some very seditious & threatning words. In ye Evening very pleasant serene weather — 2 Men sick — + If there were more convicts here, they would not submit to having their salt provisions stopped where a quantity of fish were caught by them.

 

 

Susan Garth 

GARTH [GRATH,

GOUGHT, GRATES, GRANT]

Susannah

Friendship

LondonOld Bailey

10 09 1783

7 years – married to Edward in England

 

Susannah Gough appears to have been called Susan Garth in the First Fleet records which list her on Friendship. As which she was 25 years old when sent toNorfolk Island. Another Londonter, she received a seven-year sentence for stealing nine guineas. An 1811 record at Hobart Town shows that Susan Gough’s trial date corresponded with that of Susan Garth but the ship of arrival as Charlotte. It is possible that Susan Gough was chosen for Norfolk Island because of an earlier relationship with her future husband, Edward Garth, who was already in the founding party. 

She was tried at Old Bailey, Londonon 10 September 1783 for stealing cash with a value of 199 shillings. She was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and left Englandon the Friendship aged about 24 at that time (May 1787). She had no occupation recorded. She died in 1841. 

Notes: Partner in the original crime was Elizabeth Dudgens. Guilty of return from transport following the Mercury mutiny. Report from Dunkirk hulk was that she was behaving “better than formerly”. Married Edward Garth in 1795 – a daughter had been born to them in 1789 and they had six more children in later years. Having the same surname, there is debate as to whether they were related.

 

Elizabeth Colley 

COLLEY

Elizabeth

Lady Penrhyn

LondonOld Bailey

08 12 1784 /
23 02 1785

14 years

 

Elizabeth Colley was 23 years and came fromLondon. Her crime was also associated with clothing, although her 14-year sentence was for receiving stolen goods.  

married Tom Jamieson

She was tried at Old Bailey, Londonon 8 December 1784 for receiving stolen goods with a value of 13 shillings. She was sentenced to transportation for 14 years and left Englandon the Lady Penrhyn aged about 22 at that time (May 1787). Her occupation was listed as servant. She left NSW in 1801. Notes: Gave birth to stillborn child on 4 July 1787.

 

Ann Innett

INETT [HENNET]

Ann

Lady Penrhyn

Worcester

11 03 1786

7 years. Death commuted

 

At the age of 31 years Ann Inett might be regarded as the matron of the group. She had come from the parish of Grimley in theCounty ofWorcester and was listed as a “mantua maker” (i.e. dressmaker). She had been sentenced to hang after being judged Guilty of breaking and entering with force and arms, and stealing a petticoat, two aprons, five handkerchiefs, a pair of shoes, a cap, gown, and stockings to a total value of eighteen shillings and sixpence. The sentence was reduced to seven years transportation. 

She was tried at Worcester, Worcestershire on 11 March 1786 for burglary with a value of 20 shillings. She was sentenced to transportation for 7 years having been originally sentenced to death, and left Englandon the Lady Penrhyn aged about 30 at that time (May 1787). Her occupation was listed as Mantua maker. She left NSW in 1820

Notes: Had two children by Lt P G King, [Norfolk8/1/1789] before he returned home in 1796. These boys were educated in England by their father.

 

Olivia Gascoyne

GASCOYGNE [GASCOIN, GASKINS]

Olive [Olivia]

Lady Penrhyn

Worcester

05 03 1785

7 years. Death commuted

 

Olive Gascoigne was 25 years of age and came from the Parish of Severn Stoke in theCounty ofWorcester. She was in service and stole with force and. arms £13/4/6 in coin and was sentenced to hang. Again her reprieve reduced the sentence to 7 years transportation. 

Olive Gascoigne Gascoin, Gascoygne, Gaskins, Olivia Convict Female Lady Penrhyn 5/3/85 Worcester Robbery 77.5 Death – Commuted to Transportation 7 years Servant 25 English Married Nathaniel Lucas in 1788. Norfolk Island 1788 to 1805. June 1830, Tasmania Stayed 

married Nat. Lucas – baby Anne 2/3/1789

Olive/Olivia GASCOIGNE/GASKINS/GASKINS/GASCKING

She was tried at Worcester, Worcestershire on 5 March 1785 for robbery with a value of 277 shillings. She was sentenced to transportation for 7 years having been originally sentenced to death, and left Englandon the Lady Penrhyn aged about 24 at that time (May 1787). Her occupation was listed as servant. She died in 1830.

Notes: There are no surviving records of her marriage to Nathaniel Lucas on Norfolk Island. They had thirteen children, although twins were killed at 2 years old by a tree felled by Nathaniel

Elizabeth Hipsley– will marry Stevens

HIPSLEY[HIPPESLY,

HIPPESLEY

Elizabeth Lady Penrhyn LondonOld Bailey 23 02 1785 7 years

Elizabeth Hipsley was also a Londoner aged 29 with an occupation given as needlework. She received 7 years transportation for stealing possessions of one William Fincham valued at £4/6/8. 

She was tried at Old Bailey, Londonon 23 February 1785 for stealing a silver watch and cash with a value of 87 shillings. She was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and left Englandon the Lady Penrhyn aged about 30 at that time (May 1787). Her occupation was listed as needleworker. She left NSW in 1810. 

Notes: Persuaded her victim up to her room. When he woke he found his watch and cash missing. 

Elizabeth Lee

Elizabeth Lee was another Londoner of 25 years of age. By contrast her sentence of seven years transportation seems remarkably light. She stole

“thirty gallons of wine called red port value £10, twelve gallons of other wine, called Malmsey Madeira value £12, three gallons of white port value 20s, three gallons of Malmsey Madeira value 40s, three gallons of Claret value 40s, three gallons of raisin wine value 6s, three gallons of orange wine value 6s, three gallons of brandy value 36s, three gallons of rum value 36s, three gallons of geneva value 20s, one gallon of arrack value 16s, four hundred and twenty-four glass bottles value £31/10/-, one hundredweight of tallow candles value 50s, two linen stocks value 4s, two pair stockings value 5s, one gold ring with garnets value 10s.”

There may have been a belief that Elizabeth, who was in service as a cook, could hardly have committed this crime alone.  

 *

When selecting his small group Lieutenant King had advised

“. . . that if any partiality or reciprocal affection should take place between male and female convicts going there or after their arrival at Norfolk, they might marry, and that he had authorised the Surgeon Mr. Jameson (sic) to perform that office, and after a time the Clergyman would be sent there to remarry them.” 

The settlement being now brought to some degree of order, I distributed the people into regular working parties, in order to facilitate the different operations which I was anxious to get forward as fast possible. Five men were sent to clear away ground on the north-east side of Mount George; two were employed in clearing a road from the ground where we had pitched the tents, to the fresh-water rivulet; two sawyers were sawing

timber to build me a house; two men were employed in building huts; and I sent Mr. Altree, (the surgeon’s assistant) to the valley which has already been mentioned, in order to make a commencement there, but as he had only a boy to assist him, his progress was of course very slow. 

On the 17th, I detected John Batchelor, one of the marines, in my tent, stealing rum out of a small vessel, which contained what was drawn off to serve the officers and men belonging to the Sirius; and was kept in my tent, as I had not a more secure place to put it in. In the afternoon, I assembled the settlement, and punished the thief with three dozen lashes; causing him to be led by a halter to the place of punishment: I also stopped the deficiency of rum out of his allowance.

This Morning detected Jno Batchelor Marine in my Tent stealing Rum out of a Barreca, in which it was kept, As the Allowance of ye Officers & Men belonging to the Sirius, which I kept in my Tent not having a more secure place to put it in. An Attempt of ye same sort was made on the 2nd Instant but at that time I could not fix on the Thief — In the Afternoon I assembled the people together & punished him with 1 Dozen lashes for quitting his work, one dozn lashes for breaking into ye Kings Stores, & 1 Dozen for Theft, on measuring ye remaing Rum in ye barreca I find it 7 pints Short. ordered his allowance to be stopt till ye deficiency is made good.

on the 20th, a convict boy was detected stealing the surgeon’s allowance of rum, out of his tent. This boy was only fifteen years old, and was transported for seven years. I ordered him to be punished with an hundred lashes, which I hoped would have a good effect.

In ye afternoon Charles Mac Lennand a boy of 14 yrs old was discovered stealing Rum out of the Surgeons Tent. punished him with 3 Dozn lashes. I have great reason to suppose some others were concerned with him, but not having sufficient proof against them, I forbear taking any notice of it, being determined & having assured the people that the next person which I detected in any theft whatever would be made a severe & dreadfull example of —

On the 8th of May, the two sawyers, the carpenter, and three convicts were poisoned, by eating some beans, which had a very tempting appearance, and much resembled the Windsor bean: they had gathered a quantity, which were boiled, and afterwards fried with butter: in two hours time, they were seized with violent gripings, retchings, and cold sweats; fortunately, I had a gallon of sweet oil, which, with other medicines administered by the surgeon, happily gave them relief; but they were so much weakened and exhausted that they were not able to work for a week afterwards.

On the 10th, I was obliged to inflict a punishment of forty lashes on one of the convicts, for making use of very threatening and seditious language. I had received orders from Governor Phillip, to make a saving of the salt provisions, whenever fish or turtle could be obtained, in order that they might last as long as possible: the putting this order in execution when the turtle were caught, produced murmuring; but, when the fish was issued on the 9th, the convict who was punished, said, “the people (meaning those in the settlement) were fools for suffering their salt provisions to be stopped,” and “that the convicts would soon be the strongest, and then it would be seen who were masters.” As I thought this language deserved punishment, I assembled the people, and pointed out to them, that, independent of the orders I had received, I saw the greatest necessity for making every possible saving of the provisions: I represented to them that misfortunes might happen to vessels, provisions might get spoiled, and many other accidents might happen, which would render it necessary for us to go to a short allowance; and, that the greater quantity of provisions which could be saved would be so much the better for the whole settlement: I concluded with assuring them, that I should invariably attend to my orders, and put them in execution; and that a very severe punishment would be inflicted on any who presumed to excite sedition, or behaved improperly on that, or any other pretext.

Punished Charles McLennan Convict with 3 Dozen lashes for uttering some very seditious & threatning words. In ye Evening very pleasant serene weather — 2 Men sick — + If there were more convicts here, they would not submit to having their salt provisions stopped where a quantity of fish were caught by them.

At day-light in the morning of the 15th, the midshipman and four men went out in the boat to fish: they were returning at nine o’clock, and in passing the point of the reef, the fine weather, and the absence of surf, threw them so much off their guard, that the boat shipped a sea which filled her, and washed John Batchelor, a marine, overboard: the boat, with the rest of the men, drove in among the rocks to the westward of the landing-place, where they were saved with great difficulty, having received violent contusions. The boat was got round to the crab and hove up; she was much damaged, and her repairs were likely to take up a considerable time, as I had only two men who could assist in this business.

at daylight sent the boat with the Mate & 4 Men without the reef to fish. at 9 made the signal for them to return. In passing the point of the reef, the fineness of the Weather & there being little or no surf, threw them so much off their guard, that the boat ship’d a sea, which filled her & wash’d Jno Batchelor Mar[ine] overboard, who was drowned, the boat with the rest of the people drove in among the rocks to the Westward of the landg place, where they were with great difficulty saved having received violent contusions. got the boat round to the land & hove her up, found her much damaged, having 5 planks fore & aft on each side stove in lost ye killock & 20 feet of Rope, 3 fishing lines hooks &c. 1 hand line 2 lines & the Rudder

At five in the evening of the 26th, his Majesty’s armed tender the Supply hove in sight, coming round Point Ross:… I found the Supply had brought provisions, tools, and seeds of various kinds for the settlement. I was informed by Governor Phillip, that … he had deferred sending any more convicts until he heard my account of the island; and that if he thought it adviseable to send more settlers, they would be brought in the Sirius

At day-light in the morning of the 6th, we hoisted the colours as a signal that the landing was safe, and at seven o’clock the colours were struck half staff, this being the signal that landing was dangerous, the surf having considerably increased with the flowing tide. At half past seven the Supply weighed, and soon afterwards she hove to and hoisted her boats out, and sent them towards the shore. I perceived her small boat was determined to come in, and being apprehensive that some accident might happen, I ordered Mr. Cunningham (the mate) into our boat, with four men, to lie within the point of the reef, in order to assist the Supply’s boat, should any misfortune happen to her.

At Day light Fresh Gales & Squally, hoisted the Coulours being the Sigl that a boat might land at 7AM hoisted the Colours half staff being the Sigl that landing was dangerous the Surf having considerably increas’d with the flowing tide at ½ p 7 the Supply weig’d, & soon after hove too & hoisted her boats out haul’d down the Sigl that landing was dangerous, & on the boats approaching the shore hoisted to Sigl again, that landing was dangerous. Fearing that if that boat persisted in coming in some accident might happen to her (as the Surf ran very high) I launch’d our boat & sent her with the Mate & four Men giving him positive orders not to go without the smooth water under the point of the Reef in order to be afloat & ready to give assistance to the Supplys boat in case of any accident

Unfortunately, our boat was swept away to the westward by the tide, and whilst they were endeavouring to get under the point of the reef again a heavy surf broke on her broad side and overset her. The anguish I felt at this shocking accident may be more easily conceived than described: small as our numbers were before, they were now decreased by the loss of Mr. Cunningham, (whom I sincerely cherished as a good young man) the sawyer [Westbrook], and one of the best of the convicts [John Williams]; a seaman belonging to the Supply was also drowned, and another convict narrowly escaped the same sate. Immediately after this dreadful misfortune the Supply’s jolly-boat landed with three casks of flour, and as the large boat was coming near the shore, I ordered some musquets to be fired, on which she returned on board: the Supply bore up, and ran to leeward of the island. At one o’clock, there being scarcely any surf, the jolly-boat went off, and ran to leeward of the island, to get on board the brig.

our boat being swept to the W’ward by the tide & in endeavouring to get under the point of the Reef again, she was imprudently left broad side in a heavy surf which gave a very sufficient Warning; Unfortunatly it broke into the boat & oversett her, the Mate & Wm Westbrook Sawyer — Tomlinson Seaman belonging to the Supply & Wm Williams Convict were drown’d & one man sav’d with great difficulty, the boat drove out to sea & was lost — about 10 Minutes after the Supplys Jolly Boat landed safely, with 3 Casks of Flour & one of Rum — another of the Supplys boats were coming on shore observing she did not see the Sigl, fir’d musquets &c on which she return’d on board. Soon after the Supply bore up, & ran to leeward of the Island at 1 P.M. there being much less surf, the Supplys boat went off very safely & ran to leeward of the Island to get on board her 

On the 7th August, I was obliged to punish one of the convicts with thirty-six lashes, for stealing a hatch of eggs from under a hen which was sitting on them.

punish’d Chas M’lennan with 3 Dozn lashes for stealing Eggs

in the morning of the 11th, with my letters for the Governor; and soon afterwards she hoisted her colours, and set sail for Port Jackson.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The latter end of September, a Midshipman, 2 Seamen, a Corporal & 5 private Marines belonging to the Sirius, 20 Men & 12 Women Convicts were put on board the Golden Grove Transport to proceed under the direction of the Master of the Supply to Norfolk Island to be left there in addition to those people already on that Island with Mr King, taking 12 Months provisions of all Species for the whole No of people. Bradley journal

On the 13th OCTOBER 1788, at day-light, we saw the Golden-Grove transport lying at an anchor in the road, and soon afterwards, Mr. Donovan, a midshipman belonging to the Sirius, came on shore, and delivered the governor’s letters: by this gentleman I also received a letter from Mr. Blackburn, the master of the Supply, informing me that he sailed from Port Jackson on the 24th of September, being ordered by Governor Phillip to conduct the transport to this island; that he had brought Mr. Donovan, a serjeant, a corporal, and five private marines, two gardeners, who were seamen belonging to the Sirius, and twenty-one men and eleven women convicts; also the Supply’s jolly-boat and boat’s crew, to assist in unloading the Golden-Grove.

In the evening the Corpse of Jno Williams floated & came onshore. put it into a Coffin & interred it.I much fear that the other 3 Corpses are gone to sea by which means I shall be deprived of the satisfaction of rendring the last Christian Offices to the Deceased. (see Oct 23, 1789)

In the course of the 15th, we received on shore the party of marines and all the convicts; also most of the stores, and some provisions. The next day we landed 56 casks of flour, and 18 casks of salt provisions, besides a quantity of stores.

 

punished Leonard Dyer Convict with 4 dozen lashes for Mutinous Expressions & daring Language to Mr Donovan [?]

 

 

The Golden Grove sailed for Port Jackson on the 29th.

 

As an encouragement to the convicts who came by the Golden Grove, I gave them from the time of their landing until the 30th to build houses for themselves, and to clear away a little garden ground. The huts were very soon built, being composed of logs, and thatched with bullrushes and flaggs, which made them very comfortable; and as a farther encouragement, I gave some of them (who had the best characters) permission to build their houses in the vale, and to clear away ground near them for their own use.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On 30th October 1788

[after visits of Golden Grove 13/10/1788 & Supply]

Mr. Donovan, a serjeant, a corporal, and five private marines, two gardeners, who were seamen belonging to the Sirius, and twenty-one men and eleven women convicts;

And Livington – the carpenter

As I was very much in want of a carpenter, a man who had been discharged from the Sirius, and was on board the Golden Grove as a sailor, offered to remain on the island on any terms, but I could make no agreement with him, not being impowered to take any step of that kind; I therefore informed him, that if he chose to remain he must take it on himself: this he with great readiness consented to, and I found him a great acquisition.

 

the settlement now consisted of the following persons, viz.

what’s left of the original party:

 

Lieut. Philip Gidley King – Commandant [mistress: Anne Innet]

 

Thomas Jamison- Surgeon, 1st Mate of Sirius [m: Eliz. Colley]

John Turnpenny Altree – Surgeon’s Asst., ex-Surgeon Lady Penrhyn

Roger Morley – Seaman ex Sirius– will act as store-keeper [will Drown offNorfolk Island]

Charles Heritage – Marine ex Sirius

 

Plus the new boys:

 

Robert Webb, seamen belonging to Sirius – gardener – [Elizabeth Anderson]

Thomas Webb, seamen belonging to Sirius                                                                                                  3

John Livington, carpenter, late belonging to Sirius                                                                                       1

 

Sergeant of Marines

Mr. Stephen Dunnavan [Donovan], midshipman of the Sirius – [house at “the entrance of the vale]               1

 

 Corporal of Marines,

JOHN GOWENS [GOVENS]

‘a very industrious young man’

 

five private marines:

John Williams HMS Sirius

Francis Mee

unknown

Samuel King Mary Rolt

HMS Sirius

James Proctor ?

HMS Sirius

 

Richard Dukes ?unknown HMS Sirius

James Lee Scarborough ?

Thomas Smith  Scarborough ?

16

 

Male convicts:   29

 

Edward Garth- Convict ex Scarborough[m: Susan Gough] [ass. King’s man]

Nathaniel Lucas- Convict ex Scarborough[m: Olive Gascoigne] [King’s man]

Richard Widdicombe – Convict exCharlotte, 72 yrs old [King’s man]

John Rice- Convict ex Charlotte [King’s man] Mary Gamble

Charles McClellan – Convict ex Alexander, 14 yrs. old [CONSPIRATOR]

John Mortimore – Convict ex Charlotte [father] [CONSPIRATOR]

Noah Mortimore – Convict ex Charlotte [son] [CONSPIRATOR]

Edward Westlake – Convict ex Charlotte [CONSPIRATOR]

 

 

Leonard Dyer [likely CONSPIRATOR]

Joseph Robinson the cockswain of the coble [likely CONSPIRATOR]

Thomas Watts [likely CONSPIRATOR]

Joseph Long [likely CONSPIRATOR]

William Francis [CONSPIRATOR]

John Bryant [CONSPIRATOR] Ann Coombs

William Thompson [CONSPIRATOR]

John Thompson [CONSPIRATOR]

Samuel Picket [inmates of J. Thompson] [CONSPIRATOR]

Joshua Peck [inmates of J. Thompson] [CONSPIRATOR]

Thomas Jones [CONSPIRATOR]

William Dring [likely CONSPIRATOR]

James Davis #1 /Martha Burkitt [likely CONSPIRATOR]

 

William Mariner

John Allen

John Anderson

William Blackall

Steven Donavan

Samuel Hussay

John Nicholls/ Mary Carroll

 

John Price/ Rachael Early

James Richardson

Edward Smith

Thomas Smith

Samuel Wigfall

John Williamson

 

 

Anne Innet- Convict ex Lady Penrhyn[King’s man] [KING]Norfolk

Elizabeth Colley – Convict ex Lady Penrhyn[King’s man] [JAMISON]no kids

Olive Gascoigne- Convict ex Lady Penrhyn[King’s man] [LUCAS] no kids

Susan Gough- Convict ex Friendship[King’s man] [GARTH] 8 kids

Elizabeth Lee – Convict ex Lady Penrhyn

Elizabeth Hipsley – Convict ex Lady Penrhyn no kids

 

Mary Rolt [King’s man] [KING] Prince of Wales

 

Elizabeth Anderson, a female convict, who lived with Webb [seaman Ex Sirius] [King’s man] Lady Penryhyn 3 kids starting Jan 92

Mary Gamble [King’s man] Lady Penrythn will marry John Rice – original party no kids

 

Martha Burkitt [likely CONSPIRATOR]Lady Penryhyn married James Davis in Sydney no kids

Mary Carroll Lady Penrhyn married John Nichols inSydneyno kids

Anne Fowles Lady Penrhyn Mary child Possibly shacked up with unknown father no other kids

Ann Dutton Lady Penrhyn – nothing no kids

Elizabeth Marshall Lady Penrhyn – nothing no kids

Tamasin Allen Lady Penrhyn will marry William Sims later arrival no kids

 

Ann Coombs [CONSPIRATOR] Prince of Wales/Charlotte married to John Bryant inSydneyno kids

 

Rachael Early Friendship [likely CONSPIRATOR] married John Price in Sydney no kids

 

Ann Forbes Prince of Wales [I don’t think so]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leonard Dyer

DEYER

 [DYER]

Leonard

Alexander

Southwark

10 01 1786

7 years

 

He was tried at Southwark, Surreyon 10 January 1786 for intent to rob. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and left Englandon the Alexander aged about 27 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded.

 

Notes: He received 48 lashes in October 1788 for “Mutinous Expressions and daring language. He ought to have received 150 but could not bear any more” wrote Lt Clark.

 

13th Oct.: punished Leonard Dyer Convict with 4 dozen lashes for Mutinous Expressions & daring Language to Mr Donovan

 

Joseph Robinson the cockswain of the coble

 

15th Jan: Sent Party’s out to different parts of the Island to search after Jas Robinson who has been missing since his returning from Ball Bay Yesterday. In the Eveng the Partys returned without any tidings of him—at 6 AM Sent out another party to find Jas Robinson at 8 they returned with him he being much fatigued & hungred not having had any thing to eat since the 14th in the Morng.

 

punished Josh Robinson Convict with 1 Dozen lashes, for absenting himself from his Quarters after 10 at night with a bad intention.

 

also Punished Jas. Richardson with 50 Lashes for neglect of duty for not floggen the above five men as he ought to have done [Ralph Clark]

 

Munday 31st Jas. Robinson (Convict) the Coxwin of the Coble was punished with 50 Lashes for disobediance of orders by killing Pidgeons which are not permitted to be kild[Ralph Clark]

 

Thomas Watts

WATSON [WATTS]

Thomas

Charlotte

Exeter

20 03 1786

7 years. Death commuted

[Mentioned]

He was tried atExeter,Devonon 20 March 1786 for stealing with a value of 62 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years having been originally sentenced to death, and leftEnglandon theCharlotteaged about 18 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded.

 

Notes: Report fromDunkirkhulk was “tolerably decent and orderly”.

19th January1789: Punished Thos Watts alias Watson with 2 dozen Lashes for contemptuously neglecting going to Work on being ordered by the Corpl of Marines

 

9 February 1789 Punished Thos Watson Convict with 3 dozen Lashes for absenting himself from his Quarters after 10 at night with a bad intention.

 

Conspiracy: keeping Irons on him as also on Thos Watson. they being both in some measure Guilty.

 

at 7 A.M. confined Thomas Watson, Convict, for having stolen 3 lbs of flour from Wm Mariner Convict—

 

At 7 A.M. assembled every person, the Marines & Free people under arms & examined Witnesses on oath respecting The Theft committed by Thomas Watson finding him, guilty. he was continued in Confinement to be sent to Port Jackson there to be tryed

 

Examined Witnesses on Oath against Thos Watson Convict & a Prisoner for stealing a Shirt from James Williams Private Marine.

 

9 October 1789 I forgave Thos Watson a Convict till now under confinement for theft which was proved on him & he was intended to be sent to Port Jackson to be tryed for it

 

9th October: Punished Noah Mortimer, Thos Watson & Jno Holmes Convicts with 2 Dozen lashes each for loitering & Idling their time at Work

 

10th Punished Jeremy Thompson, Wm. Fisher, John Hall, George Wood and Thomas Watts (of the Boats Crue for Concealing fish) with 50 Lashes each [Ralph Clarke]

 

William Francis

FRANCIS

William

Alexander

LondonOld Bailey

14 12 1784 /
14 12 1785

7 years

[Mentioned]

He was tried at Old Bailey,Londonon 16 September 1785 for highway robbery with a value of 2 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and leftEnglandon the Alexander aged about 24 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded. He died in 1804.

 

 


Notes: Confused by contractors with another of the same name who died inEngland.

Described as “a worthless troublesome wretch”.

Planned a mutiny onNorfolk Islandin 1788,

and attempted to escape in 1795.

‘he was a worthless, troublesome villain.’

Samual Pickett and Wm Francis were forgiven by the Commandant, but ordered to wear light Irons untill the Governor in Chiefs orders should be received respecting them.

 

John Bryant

BRYANT [BRYAN]

John

Charlotte

Exeter

14 03 1785 /
14 03 1786

7 years He died in 1789

[Mentioned]

He was tried atExeter,Devonon 14 March 1785 for highway robbery with a value of 136 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and leftEnglandon theCharlotteaged about 29 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded..

 

Notes: Report fromDunkirkhulk was “troublesome at times”. Married Ann Coombes. Killed by a falling tree. Lt King wrote “I am very unfortunate in ye loss of this Man, As he was one, amongst the very few good men that are here”.

‘who had always behaved very well’

‘he was sworn on the cross, being a catholic’

28th: a tree fell on John Bryant, a convict, which bruised his head so much that he died two hours afterwards. This man was one among the very few honest convicts which I had on the island.

 

William Thompson, in the Vale,

THOMPSON

William

Scarborough

LondonOld Bailey

26 05 1784

7 years

[Mentioned]

He was tried at Old Bailey,Londonon 26 May 1784 for stealing clothing with a value of 5 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and leftEnglandon theScarboroughaged about 31 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded. He died in 1836.

 

Notes: Received 50 lashes for stealing corn from a garden in January 1789. OnNorfolk Islandhe lived with Mary Carroll until she left in 1794.

 

John Thompson [house in the Vale],

THOMPSON

James

Scarborough

LondonOld Bailey

07 07 1784

7 years

[Mentioned]

He was tried at Old Bailey,Londonon 7 July 1784 for stealing two silver teaspoons with a value of 10 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and leftEnglandon theScarboroughaged about 40 at that time (May 1787). His occupation was listed as haymaker.

 

Samuel Picket inmates of J. Thompson

PIGOTT [PIGGOTE

 PICKETT]

Samuel

Charlotte

Exeter

20 03 1786

7 years. Death commuted

[Mentioned]

He was tried atExeter,Devonon 20 March 1786 for stealing material with a value of 40 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years having been originally sentenced to death, and leftEnglandon theCharlotteaged about 26 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded. He died in 1817.

 

Notes: Partner in the original crime was Samuel Barsby. Report fromDunkirkhulk was “tolerably decent and orderly”.

Samual Pickett and Wm Francis were forgiven by the Commandant, but ordered to wear light Irons untill the Governor in Chiefs orders should be received respecting them

Joshua Peck [inmates of J. Thompson]

PECK

[PEEK]

Joshua

Scarborough

Exeter

20 03 1786

7 years

[Mentioned]

He was tried atExeter,Devonon 20 March 1786 for stealing with a value of 35 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and leftEnglandon theScarboroughaged about 31 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded. He died in 1825.

 

Notes: Report fromDunkirkhulk was “tolerably decent and orderly”. Charged with 3 of his sons in 1821, with stealing government sheep and received a sentence of colonial transportation toNewcastlefor 14 years.

 

Thomas Jones

JONES

Thomas

Friendship

Bristol

30 03 1784

14 years. Death commuted

[Mentioned]

He was tried atBristol, Gloucestershire on 30 March 1784 for burglary. He was sentenced to transportation for 14 years having been originally sentenced to death, and leftEnglandon the Friendship aged about 23 at that time (May 1787). His occupation was listed as bricklayer.

 

Notes: Report fromDunkirkhulk was “tolerably decent and orderly”. Partner in the original crime was Jeremiah Leary.

 

Joseph Long

LONG

Joseph

Alexander

Gloucester

23 03 1785

7 or 14 years. Death commuted

[Mentioned]

was tried atGloucester, Gloucestershire on 23 March 1785 for stealing a silver watch with a value of 40 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years having been originally sentenced to death, and leftEnglandon the Alexander aged about 27 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded. He died in 1793.

Punished Joseph Long Convict with one dozen lashes for leaving his work & absenting himself without leave.

 

Notes: Received 12 lashes on 28 January 1789 for being absent from work,

and another 100 on 28 October 1789 for lending shoes he had been given to mend.

 

 

 

Female convicts

17

 

 Elizabeth Anderson, a female convict, who lived with Webb

Ann Innett, Lady Penryhyn, mother ofNorfolk to King 8/1/1789

Susan Garth – married to Edward in England

Elizabeth Colley – L.P. – married Tom Jamieson

Olivia Gascoyne – L.P. – married Nat. Lucas – baby Anne 2/3/1789

Ann Coombs

Martha Burkitt

Ann Forbes

Ann Dutton

Mary Fowles

Elizabeth Marshall

 Mary Carroll

Rachael Early

Mary Gamble

Mary Rolt

??

Tamasin Allen will marry Sims

ALLEN

[BODDINGTON]Jamasin [Tamasin]Lady PenrhynLondonOld Bailey25 10 17867 years

 

She was tried at Old Bailey, Londonon 25 October 1786 for assault and robbery with a value of 313 shillings. She was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and left Englandon the Lady Penrhyn aged about 32 at that time (May 1787). Her occupation was listed as servant. She died in 1825.

 

Notes: Her victim, Hugh Harding was the same as that of Mary Allen. One witness said of him “I never see him sober”. ‘Tam’ was described as “a lustyish woman with black hair” at her trial.

 

The total number, besides two children,

62

 

 

 

 

 

The settlement now consisted of the following persons, viz.

Mr. Stephen Dunnavan, midshipman of the Sirius                    1
Mr. Thomas Jamieson, surgeon's first mate of ditto                1
Mr. John Altree, assistant-surgeon                                1
Roger Morley, Robert Webb, Thomas Webb, seamen belonging to ditto 3
John Livington, carpenter, late belonging to ditto                1
Serjeant, corporal, six private marines                           8
                                                                 --
                                                             16 free.
 
Male convicts                                                    29
Female convicts                                                  17
                                                                 --
The total number, besides two children,                          62

 

Who were the children?

One must be the ‘convict boy of 15’

Soon after the departure of the Golden Grove, I made public the following extract from Governor Phillip’s letter to me:–

“You will return any marine, convict, or other person, with whose conduct you are not satisfied; and you are at liberty to permit those, whose good behaviour merits the indulgence, to work one day in the week on lots of land, one or two acres of ground to a convict, which you will cause to be pointed out for that purpose, and which they may consider as their own property while they behave well; after the time for which they are sentenced may expire, lands will be granted them, if they wish to remain as settlers, and you may give them such part of the public stock to breed from, as you may judge proper, forbidding any person on the island ever to sell any fowl, hog, or any other animal, without having first obtained your permission; and you are not to permit the killing of any live stock until you have a sufficient quantity on the island for your support, except in cases of sickness.

“You will make the report to me, when opportunity offers, of such who are not convicts, and who are desirous of settling on the island; and you are at liberty to permit them to cultivate ground for their own benefit, not exceeding ten acres to any one person; they will receive the indulgence of such part of the live stock as you may judge necessary to give them, but neither settler, nor any other person on the island, is to be at liberty to kill any animal without having obtained your permission. Hereafter, grants will be made to those who wish to remain on the island, of a larger extent of ground.”

I now began to perceive a very great difference between the work done since the arrival of the convicts by the Golden-Grove, and what was done before, in proportion to our numbers; the reason was, that when the number of convicts was increased, I had not persons sufficient to overlook them and keep them at work: I therefore adopted the plan of talking them; for which purpose I consulted those whom I thought conversant in the different employments that were carrying on; and their opinions, added to what I had observed myself, determined me to six the different tasks as follow, with which they were all contented. Six men were to cut the timber down on an acre of ground in one week: six men to clear away and turn up an acre of ground fit for receiving seed, in twenty-eight days: two sawyers to saw one hundred feet of sawing each day. At these tasks the convicts would have an opportunity of saving time to themselves; and, as that time was to be employed in clearing gardens and ground to cultivate for their own use, what was thus saved from the public work would not be lost to society; although it was to be feared that some would pass their time in idleness.

Having six musquets on the island, exclusive of the marines arms, I thought it necessary to instruct the few free persons I had (which were six) in the use of fire-arms, in case the marines should be sick, or any other exigency should happen; I therefore gave orders to Mr. Dunavan to exercise them every Saturday morning; and the serjeant was to exercise the marines at the same time, or oftener: I intended that the former, after they were a little expert, should fire half a dozen rounds once a month.

Having Six Musquets, besides the Marines Arms, I judge it proper to instruct all the Free people on the Island (being Six) In the use of Fire arms In case of the Marines being sick or any other exigency wherefore I gave orders to the Serjeant & Corporal of Marines to exercise them regularly every Saty Morning As well as the Marines — when the former are tolerable expert, I mean that they shall fire half a dozen rounds once a Month — which is putting the Island In the best state of defence in my power —

 

The 8th January ushered a male child into the world, and as he was the first born on the island, he was baptized by the name ofNorfolk.

 

1 Male Child born. Norfolk.

JANUARY

 

At noon on the 15thJanuary, parties were sent out in search of the cockswain of the coble, who had lost himself in the woods, as he was returning from Ball-Bay, where the boat had been hauled up the preceding day at sun-set: he was found on the 18th, naked and almost exhausted, insomuch that he was obliged to be carried to the settlement, having received several deep cuts and bruises which rendered him incapable of getting out of his bed for some time.

Strong Gales & Cloudy Wr—People all employed as before. Sent Party’s out to different parts of the Island to search after Jas Robinson who has been missing since his returning from Ball Bay Yesterday. In the Eveng the Partys returned without any tidings of him—

Do Wr with heavy Squalls of Wind at 6 AM Sent out another party to find Jas Robinson at 8 they returned with him he being much fatigued & hungred not having had any thing to eat since the 14th in the Morng. People all employed as before—

 

Thomas Watts, a convict, was punished with twenty-four lashes, on the 19th January, for contemptuously refusing to work, and being abusive to the corporal of marines, who reprimanded him for not going to work with the rest of the convicts.

 

Punished Thos Watts alias Watson with 2 dozen Lashes for contemptuously neglecting going to Work on being ordered by the Corpl of Marines 1 Man Lame—

 

While these transactions were passing atSydney, the little colony atNorfolk Islandhad been threatened with an insurrection. The Supply returned from thence the 24th, after an absence of five weeks, and brought from Lieutenant King, the commandant, information of the following chimerical scheme:—The capture of the island, and the subsequent escape of the captors, was to commence by the seizure of Mr. King’s person, which was intended to be effected on the first Saturday after the arrival of any ship in the bay, except the Sirius. They had chosen that particular day in the week, as it had been for some time Mr. King’s custom on Saturdays to go to a farm which he had established at some little distance from the settlement, and the military generally chose that day to bring in the cabbage palm from the woods. Mr. King was to be secured in his way to his farm. A message, in the commandant’s name, was then to be sent to Mr. Jamison, the surgeon, who was to be seized as soon as he got into the woods; and the serjeant and the party were to be treated in the same manner. These being all properly taken care of, a signal was to be made to the ship in the bay to send her boat on shore, the crew of which were to be made prisoners on their landing; and two or three of the insurgents were to go off in a boat belonging to the island, and inform the commanding officer that the ship’s boat had been stove on the beach, and that the commandant requested another might be sent a-shore; this also was to be captured: and then, as the last act of this absurd scheme, the ship was to be taken, with which they were to proceed to Otaheite, and there establish a settlement. They charitably intended to leave some provisions for the commandant and his officers, and for such of the people as did not accompany them in their escape.—This was their scheme. Not one difficulty in the [P.62] execution of it ever occurred to their imagination: all was to happen with as much facility as it was planned; and, had it not been fortunately revealed to a seaman belonging to the Sirius, who lived with Mr. King as a gardener, by a female convict who cohabited with him, there was no doubt but that all these improbabilities would have been attempted.

On being made acquainted with these circumstances, the commandant took such measures as appeared to him necessary to defeat them; and several who were concerned in the scheme confessed the share which they were to have had in the execution of it. Mr. King had hitherto, from the peculiarity of his situation,—secluded from society, and confined to a small speck in the vast ocean, with but a handful of people,—drawn them round him, and treated them with the kind attentions which a good family meets with at the hands of a humane master; but he now saw them in their true colours, and one of his first steps, when peace was restored, was to clear the ground as far as possible round the settlement, that future villainy might not find a shelter in the woods for its transactions. To this truly providential circumstance, perhaps, many of the colonists afterwards were indebted for their lives.

King

 

 

 

 

 

CONSPIRACY

 

The next day, Robert Webb, a seaman belonging to the Sirius, but who was employed as a gardener on the island, came to me, and signified a wish to speak with me in private, which being granted, he informed me that a plan had been concerted among the convicts, to surprize me, with the rest of the officers, marines, and free people; and to possess themselves of the public stores, and afterwards to endeavour to surprize the Supply, or any other vessel that might come here, and make their escape from the island.

 

On my interrogating him, he said that Elizabeth Anderson, a female convict, who lived with him, had given him this information the day before, and on his doubting the truth of what she advanced, she offered to convince him of the truth of her assertion, by bringing him within hearing of a convict whom she would entice to relate the plan; which being agreed to by Webb, this morning (the 23d.) Elizabeth Anderson invited William Francis (a convict) into the hut, to drink a dram, when he related the circumstances of the plan, and how it was to be carried into execution; Webb being at this time hid from the view of Francis, by a piece of tent which was hung before the bed he lay in.

 

As I thought it necessary to substantiate this information, I caused Robert Webb and Elizabeth Anderson to be kept apart, and took their depositions on oath separately, both of which perfectly agreed in every particular, and were in substance as follows:

 

“That yesterday (the 22d.) between nine in the morning and noon, Elizabeth Anderson being washing, she sighed, when William Francis, who stood near her, asked what she sighed for; she answered, she was very low; William Francis then asked her, if she could get her liberty, whether she would leave Webb, and on her saying yes, he said, the first ship that comes here, except the Sirius, we will every man and woman have our liberty, to which we were all sworn last Saturday; and we (the convicts) would have had it already, if the Sirius was not the first ship expected, and the day that Watts was flogged was intended to have been the day for making Mr. King and the free people prisoners.”

 

Francis added, “that it was proposed to take the Golden-Grove on her passage, as they (the convicts) were all for it, except one man, and he was the forwardest in the present plot. Robert Webb appearing, put an end to this conversation; and Elizabeth Anderson repeated to Webb all that passed between her and Francis: on Robert Webb’s suspecting the story being an invention of hers; they agreed that he should lie concealed in the bed, which had a curtain made of a piece of tent, while she should endeavour to draw from Francis a fuller account of the plan laid by him and the rest of the convicts.

 

This morning (the 23d.) at day-light, Robert Webb being still in bed, Elizabeth Anderson got up, and on seeing Francis near the hut, she wished him the ‘good morrow,’ and informed him that Webb was gone to town to grind his tools; she then said, ‘come Bill, sit down and drink a little rum, it will do us both good, and drink to the boys of the ship that will take us from this place:’ to which health they both drank. Elizabeth Anderson then asked Francis how long it was since they (the convicts) had planned the scheme; he said they were all sworn on this Saturday month past, at Thompson’s, in the vale, excepting Widdicome and Rice, (convict rope-makers,) who were Mr. King’s right-hand men, and therefore not to be trusted: Lucas (the convict carpenter) had not been asked, but they were sure he would be on their side, when they (the convicts) got the day.

 

“Francis continued, saying, ‘I’ll tell you how it is to be done; the whole is left to my management, and the best time will be the first Saturday after the arrival of any other vessel than the Sirius. Most of the marines and free people will be a-cabbaging,[Getting the wood-cabbages] and as Mr. King generally goes to the farm twice a day, in his absence I will step into his house and hand out the arms [The marine’s arms were kept in my house] to my men; then I will go out and take Mr. King, and after that the other officers, and what marines are in camp, and the rest as they come in from cabbaging: we will then put them all in irons, two and two together, when they will be as helpless as bees.

 

‘We will then make the signal for a boat, and when she lands, we’ll nab the boat’s crew; then send the coble off with Mr. King’s compliments, and request another boat may be sent to carry off plank, as the first boat was stove, and the coble could not carry luggage: when the second boat comes, the people belonging to it will be nabbed, and the two boats with the coble will be filled with our people (the convicts) and the women, and take possession of the ship.

 

‘Three of the sailors might remain, if they were willing, and one officer should be kept to navigate the ship; the rest of the officers and ship’s company will be left on Nepean or Phillip-Island, with the coble, from whence they might go to Norfolk-Island and liberate the commandant.’

 

“Elizabeth Anderson then expressed her wishes that it might succeed, and Francis left her.”

 

The taking of Webb and Anderson’s depositions, and interrogating them, took up two hours; and it being Saturday, most of the convicts were out getting cabbages: there was a possibility that the accusation against William Francis might be an invention; yet, having received that information, it became necessary to use every precaution against a surprize; I therefore ordered a constant guard of three privates, to be commanded by Mr. Dunavan, the serjeant, and corporal, and a guard-house was built between my house and the surgeon’s, in which the provisions and stores were deposited. The store-house occupied by the marines, I removed from the water side nearer to my house. Every person, without exception, was ordered to live in the town, or camp, and I recalled the party who had been sent to Ball-Bay.

 

Being still desirous to obtain fuller proof the criminality of the parties concerned in this diabolical scheme, I desired Messrs. Dunavan and Jamieson to watch the return of John Bryant, a convict, who had always behaved very well: they were to interrogate him respecting the plan laid by the convicts, and to assure him of a pardon, if he would discover all he knew. I also sent to the house of William Thompson, in the Vale, to search for any written agreement that might have been drawn up, but none was found; however, the persons employed in this search found a quantity of Indian corn in a chest in Thompson’s house, which, from its not being quite hard, must have been stolen from the King’s grounds in Arthur’s Vale, as there was no other on the island.

 

The next step I took was to order William Francis, John Thompson, Samuel Picket, and Joshua Peck to be taken into custody, on their return from cabbaging.

 

Messrs. Dunavan and Jamieson met John Bryant, and persuaded him to discover all he knew about the plot; presently afterwards, they brought him before me, when he was sworn on the cross, being a catholic, and I took his deposition; the substance of which was as follows:

 

“That on the passage from Port Jackson to Norfolk-Island it was talked among the convicts to take the Golden-Grove transport from the officers and crew and run away with her, and on its being proposed to Bryant he said they could be only fools to think of such a thing. That in going out to work on the 14th of this month with all the convicts, Samuel Picket remarked how easy it would be to take the island, by making the commandant prisoner, when going to, or returning from the farm in Arthur’s Vale; after which, coming in and seizing the arms, and making prisoners of the marines and other free people. It was soon after agreed that the rest of the convicts were to be consulted, and if they were willing, a meeting was to be held at John Thompson’s house in the Vale; Samuel Picket and Joshua Peck being inmates of his.”

 

The remainder of Bryant’s deposition, respecting how the island was to be taken, agreed in every particular with the testimony of Elizabeth Anderson and Robert Webb.

 

I next sent for Joshua Peck, and examined him on oath, and after much prevarication, he gave nearly the same account how the business was to be conducted as the others had done, except as to the manner how the officers were to be made prisoners, which was, “that after “they had secured me, they were to go to Mr. Dunavan’s house at “the entrance of the vale, and take him and conduct him to the farm, “where we were to be tied back to back; after which, one of the “convicts was to be sent in with a message as from me, to speak with “the surgeon, serjeant of marines, and the rest, and they were to be “secured one by one as they came out.”

 

To Bryant and Peck, I put the two following questions, telling them, that as their depositions and examination would be sent to the Governor, it was necessary that they recollected the nature of the oath they had taken, and to give a just answer.

Question.–Can you assign any reason for the aforesaid plot being formed?

Answer.–None, but the hopes of regaining our liberty.

Question.–Have you at any time heard any convict on the island express any discontent at the conduct of officers, or on any other ground?

Answer.–None.

 

It was now clear to me that a scheme had been entered into, in which all the convicts were concerned, except the rope-makers and carpenter already mentioned; and their succeeding in it, so far as regarded the taking myself and the officers prisoners was not to be doubted; for, I must own, that I was not sufficiently upon my guard against the description of people I had to deal with; as the apparent satisfaction which they often expressed at being on this island in preference to Port Jackson, added to the great indulgences they had frequently received from me, lulled any suspicion of their having the most distant idea of the kind.

 

The second part of their plan, viz. that of taking any ship which might come to the island, was very doubtful; but had the first succeeded, the destruction of the provisions and stores would have followed; and it is difficult to say what fatal consequences would have ensued from the drunken state they would have been in whilst the rum lasted: indeed, I must in justice to them observe, that no sanguinary measures were thought of; on the contrary, they proposed good treatment to myself and the free people; but how far that intention would have been observed by a set of men of their description, when in a state of drunken madness, may easily be conceived.

 

I ordered Samuel Picket and William Francis to wear irons, and the next day (Sunday), after prayers, I addressed the convicts, and pointed out to them the absurdity of their plan, admitting they had made themselves masters of a vessel. I endeavoured to convince them of the advantages they enjoyed on this island, where nothing but industry was requisite to insure them a happy and comfortable livelihood; after which, I exhorted them to let their future conduct wipe away the present impropriety of their behaviour: those who distinguished themselves by a regular, honest, and industrious line of conduct, I promised to countenance and encourage, whilst those of a contrary description were sure to be made severe and dreadful examples of. I likewise cautioned them against stealing and plundering the grounds and gardens; assuring them that they would be severely punished on detection.

 

Having finished my address to the convicts, I caused the following orders to be read, in addition to those which were before made public for the preservation of order.

 

“The commandant strictly forbids any officer, soldier, free person, or convict, male or female, ever absenting themselves from the camp or town for ten minutes together, without having first obtained leave from the officer charged with the guard, who will obtain the commandant’s leave, if he should think fit to grant it. The officer of the guard will take an account of the names of those who are absent on leave, on a slate, which will be kept in the guard-house for that purpose.

 

Every person returning from that leave, is to acquaint the officer of the guard of their return.

 

Every convict who is observed to go over the hill to the farm, without having obtained leave, or going to work there, will be fired at by the sentinel.

 

The convicts, and not more than three together, are to build houses for themselves, at their leisure hours, in such places as will be pointed out.

 

No person for the future will be suffered to live out of the camp.

 

John Thompson and Samuel Pickett are dispossessed of their garden ground, in consequence of their ill behaviour.

 

Though I had not the most distant reason to suspect any free person whatever, of being in the least disaffected, yet I judged it necessary to finish this affair by administering the oaths of allegiance and fidelity to the officers, marines, and free people individually, in the presence of the convicts. The theft of the Indian corn being fully proved, on the 26th, I ordered William Thompson to be punished with fifty lashes; and Thomas Jones, another convict, was punished with thirty-six lashes, for abuse and insolence to Messieurs Jamieson and Dunavan.

 

Moderate Breezes & very pleasant Weather. at 9 AM Robert Webb Gardner came to the Commandant & informed him that a plan was laid by the Convicts to take the Island. The Circumstances attending which are contained in the different depositions, Confined Noah Mortimer, Wm Francis & Samuel Pickett Convicts as principals, also Jno Thompson Convict for stealing Indian Corn, off the Corn growing in Arthurs Vale. Removed the Sergt & Corporals house from the Water side to its place next the Surgeons, pitched* the Marines & free People round the Store houses & caused every person to come in out of the Country.

Moderate Breezes & dark Gloomy Weather with frequent Showers of very heavy rain. Sent the Coble round to Ball Bay to bring every thing belonging to those settled there. at 11 AM Performed Divine Service—

Strong Gales of Wind & heavy rain most part of the day during the Morning examined Witnesses on oath respecting the Plot laid to take the Island &c. After which discharged Noah Mortimer (who did not appear to be so guilty as S. Pickett & W. Francis) keeping Irons on him as also on Thos Watson. they being both in some measure Guilty. In the afternoon Employed the Convicts Cutting down trees & opening an avenue round the Commandts house. Punished J. Jones Convict with 3 dozn lashes for insolence & contempt to Messrs Donavan & Jamison

 

Joseph Long, a convict, was punished with twelve lashes on the 28th January, for quitting his work and absenting himself without leave.

 

Punished Joseph Long Convict with one dozen lashes for leaving his work & absenting himself without leave. 5 Men blinded by the Maple Sap getting into their Eyes—

 

Two convicts were punished on the 9th February, for absenting themselves after ten o’clock at night from their quarters, with a bad intention.

 

Punished Thos Watson Convict with 3 dozen Lashes & Josh Robinson Convict with 1 Dozen, for absenting themselves from their Quarters after 10 at night with a bad intention.

 

 

The 15th February, being Sunday, after performing divine service, and reading the orders, I forgave the prisoners, Samuel Pickett and William Francis, for their ill behavior in the affair of the plot; but it was my intention to send Francis to Port Jackson the first opportunity, as he was a worthless, troublesome villain.

Moderate Breezes & very serene pleasant Weather at 10 A.M. performed divine Service. Samual Pickett and Wm Francis were forgiven by the Commandant, but ordered to wear light Irons untill the Governor in Chiefs orders should be received respecting them. 1 Man Lame

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE HURRICANE

 

The interval of fine weather, which gave us an opportunity of examining the state of our provisions, and cleaning the damaged flour, was succeeded by a hurricane that was dreadful beyond description. In the morning of the 25th, we had light winds from the north-east, and very dismal, dark, cloudy weather, with constant torrents of heavy rain: towards noon, the wind blew a heavy gale, and kept increasing in violence. At midnight, it shifted to east-south-east, and blew with great fury, attended with constant deluges of rain. At four o’clock the next morning several of the largest pines were blown up by the roots, one of which fell on the hog-stye and killed a very fine English sow and a litter of seven pigs that were my property, and three sows and two boars belonging to the crown. This was a severe loss to young colonists, but a still worse accident afterwards happened, and which had nearly deprived us of our flour.

From four in the morning until noon, the wind increased to a very severe hurricane, with the heaviest rain I ever saw or heard of. Pines, and oak-trees of the largest size, were blown down every instant; the roots were torn up, together with rocks that surrounded them; frequently leaving pits at least ten feet deep. Some of the very large trees, which measured 180 feet in length, and four feet diameter, were thrown by the violence of the tempest to a considerable distance from the place where they grew; and others, whose roots were too deep in the earth to be torn up, bent their tops nearly to the ground.

In addition to the horror of this scene, a very large tree fell across the granary and dashed it to pieces, staving a number of flour casks that were in it; but by the general activity of every person on the settlement, the flour, Indian corn, and stores were in a short time collected, and removed to my house, with the loss of a few pounds of flour and some small stores that were blown away.

The gale now raged with the most violent fury, which defies all description: whole forests seemed, as it were, swept away by the roots, and many of the trees were carried to a considerable distance. By one o’clock in the afternoon, there were as many trees blown down round the settlement as would have employed fifty men for a fortnight to cut down. The swamp and the adjoining vale were overflowed, and had every appearance of a large, navigable river: the surf ran mountains high, but did not overflow the bank, although very near its level: in the road, the sea ran very high, often eclipsing Nepean Isle.

At two in the afternoon, the gardener, two convict men, and one woman, who lived in the vale, came to the settlement, having narrowly escaped with their lives from the falling of trees, and great depth of water in many parts of the valley; and their houses, which had been built and framed with strong logs, were blown down. Three acres of ground that had recently been cleared were almost covered with trees: every thing in the gardens was nearly destroyed, and an acre of Indian corn, which was in a promising state, and nearly fit for reaping, was laid flat and covered with water four feet deep; nay, incredible as it may appear, the violence of the wind blew up cabbages, turnips, and other vegetables by the roots; and what remained in the gardens were turned as black as if they had been burnt.

At three o’clock, the wind veered round to south, and moderated, and at sun-set, the weather was very pleasant.

It was a providential circumstance that the discovery of the plot (as has already been related) happened previous to this dreadful storm, as, on that account, the convicts had altogether been employed in cutting down large trees round the settlement, to make room for building other houses: had not this been done, our houses would probably have been destroyed and many lives lost, as we had no asylum or retreat whatever: fortunately, however, only one man was hurt; he received a violent contusion on his right side by the branch of a tree falling on him. There was no appearance on any part of the island of such a storm having ever happened before.

 

At Midnight very heavy Gales of wind & torrents of rain, the Wind at ESE & increasing in violence at 4 A.M. several pines of 180f in length & [*] yds in girth were blown up by the roots, one of which fell on the Pigs Stye & killed a Sow with a litter of Pigs belonging to the Commandant from 4 A.M. till Noon the Wind increased to a dreadfull hurricane, with deluges of Rain Pigs & livestock, Trees of the largest kinds were blowing down every instant tearing up their Roots & Rocks with them, leaving, beds of 10 feet deep & the longest & largest Roots I ever saw, some of these very large trees were thrown by the violence of the Wind at some distance from where they grew, those pines which were strong enough to resist the force of the Wind bent their tops very near the Ground, Nothing but horror & desolation presented itself on every side which can only be equalled or conceived but by those who have seen the dreadfull effects of a Hurricane in the West Indies, what added more to the Horror of the Scene was a very large live oak tree being blown on the Granary, which dashed it to pieces & stove a Number of the Casks of Flour, but by the General Activity of every Person, the Flour Indian Corn & Stores, were in a Short time Collected & removed to the Commandants house with the loss of about half a Cask of Flour, & some small Stores. At Noon the Gale blew with the utmost Fury & violence sweeping, Woods of trees up by the Roots & carrying some of them to a considerable distance, at one oclock there were as many Trees fell round the Settlement as would have employed 50 Men a fortnight to fall, The Swamps & Vale were quite overflowed by 11 oclock & had every appearance of a large navigable river It was a fortunate Circumstance that on the discovery of the Plot a great number of Pine & live oak Trees were falled round the Houses, to open the Ground, had not this been done all ye houses would have been destroyed & a Number of lives must have been lost, but only one man received a Contusion on his Hip by a branch of a Pine falling on him The Gardens, at this Settlement were quite destroyed the Cabbages Turnips & other Plants were torn up by the Roots & those few which withstood the hurricane appeared as if they had been burnt—The Sugar cane growing here is much damaged altho’ Supported by a Stick & screened by a high Fence. at 3 oclock the Wind having veered to South it moderated & Continued Moderating untill the next day—Ab’t 4 oclock P.M. The Gardner with 2 Convicts & one Convict Woman came in from the plantation in Arthurs Vale having had several narrow escapes, by the Fall of trees & the great depth of Water in many places, Their Houses which were built & framed with Strong logs were all Blown down. The devastation done in the Vale is beyond belief nor can the dreadfull effects of the Hurricane there be described, whole Woods being blown up by the Roots & many Trees blown* on the 3 Acres of Cleared Ground, The violence & Direction of the Wind is marked by all the Trees on the hills on the Right hand side of the Vale being blown down & very little damage being done on the left hand side several Clumps of very large trees which were left Standing on the flat part of the Vale were torn up by the roots & an acre of Indian Corn which would have been fit to gather in 3 Weeks, & was in a very promising state was all laid flatt & overflowed some feet by the Water, every Thing growing in the Garden is almost quite destroyed. There is no appearance on any part of the Island of a Gale of Wind of this Kind having ever happned before, It may be said that the Vale & the Spot where the Settlement is made, was a direction for the Wind, But the great damage & the number of Trees blown up by the Roots in places which were not cleared at all sufficiently proves that Hurricanes of this Kind are not frequent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On the 2d of March,1789 at day-light, we saw the Supply in the road;

twenty-one men and six women convicts, with three children in the Supply, to be landed on this island.

[one of the women was Francis Hart – one of the children was the orphan Edward Parkinson]

 

Officers, marines, and free men, 16

Male convicts,                   50

Female convicts,                 23

Children,                         5

Total                            94

 

 

Corporal Govens

John Williams, a marine

Jno Willamson Marine

Francis Mee, a private marine

 

Thomas Watson, a convict,

James Davis, a convict,

Thomas Jones, a convict,

Wm Mariner Convict

Noah Mortimer, a convict

Levingstone

Thomas Watson,[Watts]

William Holmes, a convict

Edward Gaff, a convict

John Bryant, a convict,

James Burn

Jn[Jonathan] Anderson, convict

Wm Blackhall, convict

Richard Phillimore, a convict

Jeremiah Leary, a convict,

John Brannagin

William Dring

John Arscot, a convict carpenter,

 

Elizh Pipkin Convict

Ann Coombs, a female convict

Catherine Johnson, a female convict

Gamble, Mary

Francis Hart

Boyle, Jonathon

Branagan, John

Dyer, Leonard

Francis, William

Holmes, Jonathon

Jones, Jonathon

Long, Joseph

Lucas, —

MacLennan, Charles

Pickett, Samuel

Powers, Joseph

Robinson, Joshua

Thompson, Jonathon

Thompson, William

Williams, William

 

 

 

 

 

I have hitherto forborn mentioning the numerous thefts that had almost daily been committed; and, notwithstanding the utmost vigilance, we had not been able to detect any person. Gardens had been constantly plundered; the harness cask, containing the provisions that were daily issued out, had been robbed; and one night an attempt was made to get into the upper part of my house, where the slops were deposited. Great rewards had been offered to tempt one or other to discover their accomplices, but without effect: however, at eleven o’clock in the night of the 23d, Thomas Watson, a convict, was detected in another convict’s house, stealing a bag of flour.

Do Wr with some heavy Showers of Rain during the night, at 7 A.M. confined Thomas Watson, Convict, for having stolen 3 lbs of flour from Wm Mariner Convict—

From the number of daring thefts which had been committed, without my being able to fix on the thief, it became necessary to inflict a very severe punishment on this offender; and as I had no authority to give him any very severe corporal chastisement; after examining witnesses upon oath, and fully proving the theft, I ordered him into confinement, with an intention of sending him to Port Jackson to take his trial. In order to prevent these depredations as much as possible in future, I gave orders for the convicts to be mustered in their huts three times every night, and the hour of muster to be constantly changed: this had a good effect, but did not entirely prevent robberies from being committed.

At 7 A.M. assembled every person, the Marines & Free people under arms & examined Witnesses on oath respecting The Theft committed by Thomas Watson finding him, guilty. he was continued in Confinement to be sent to Port Jackson there to be tryed

James Davis, a convict, was punished with twenty-four lashes, on the 25th, for using seditious expressions, and throwing away some fish which had been issued, in a contemptuous manner.

at 3 PM punished James Davis Convict with two Dozen Lashes for Throwing the Fish away Contemptuously 1

The different employments of the convicts were as follows:

At task-work, clearing away ground for cultivation,     30
Sawyers, sawing boards, for building a store-house,      2 2 free.
Carpenters, building a store-house,                      2 1 free.
Blacksmith, making fish-hooks, and other necessary work, 1 1 free.
Coble-men fishing,                                       3
Gardeners,                                               3 1 free.
Making shingles,                                         4
Schoolmaster, 1; officers servants, 3; care of stock, 1, 5
Total                                                   50 5

30th Fresh Gales with some passing showers of rain. People all employed at Task Work Died one of Governments Sows, on opening her found she had been Stabbed which had caused an inflammation of the Intestines This amongst a number of other acts of atrocity distinguish the Convicts here as an act of hardened Miscreants

April On the 5th, (Sunday) after divine service, Thomas Jones, a convict, acquainted me that the term of his transportation expired that day. I had been informed by Governor Phillip that the different terms for which the convicts were sentenced was not known, as the masters of the transports had left the papers necessary for that information with their owners; but that he had wrote to England for them, and until their arrival no steps could be taken, as the convicts words were not sufficient: I therefore informed Thomas Jones that he was at liberty to work for whom he pleased, and if he chose to work for the public good, he would be used the same as others were, until I received further orders concerning him.

Strong Gales & Dark Gloomy Weather. at 5 PM. came on heavy rain with some Thunder & Lightning. at 10 AM. performed Divine Service. Thos Jones Convict acquainted the Commandant that his Term of Transportn expired this Day, on which the Commandant declared him to be a freeman & at liberty to work for the Crown, or Individuals untill His Excellency the Governor in Chiefs order should be received respecting him.*

* King appears to have been hoodwinked! There were two First-Fleeters named Thomas Jones. One was sentenced to seven years in 1785, the other to 14 years in 1784. King had no records at this time—presumably he took Jones’ word

An acre of ground, in Arthur’s Vale, was sown with wheat on the 6th; and on the 8th, Noah Mortimer, a convict, was punished with sixty lashes, for refusing to work, on being ordered by the overseer, and being abusive. The 10th, being Good-Friday, I performed divine service, and no work was done on the settlement

at 4 P.M. punished Noah Mortimer Convict with 5 Dozen Lashes for refusing to Work, on being ordered by the overseer, this is the sixth offence of the Kind he has been guilty of

Notwithstanding every convict had suffered exemplary punishment for their crimes, whenever they were detected; yet this was not sufficient to keep the free people in proper subordination; for on the 26th, John Williams, a marine, quitted his guard, and raised a quarrel in a convict’s house; the consequence of which was a battle between himself and another marine: on which, I assembled the marines and all the other free people under arms, under the flag-staff, on which the colours were hoisted; and I punished him with twenty-four lashes, for quitting his post, and fighting with his comrade.

Very pleasant Serene fine Weather. at 10 AM performed Divine Service —1 Convict Lame. Confined John Williams Marine for breeding a Quarrell & fighting with one of his Comrades in a Convicts house.

Do Wr at 10 AM Assembled the Marines & Free people under arms; under the Flaggstaff on which the Colours were hoisted & punished John Williams Marine with 1 Dozen Lashes for Challenging his Comrade, & unsoldier like behaviour & one Dozen Lashes Striking & fighting with his Comrade in a Convicts house.

 

9th May -punished Elizh Pipkin Convict with 3 dozen for infamous beh[aviour]

 

11th May: Punished Wm Dring Convict with 3 dozen Lashes for absenting himself from the Settlement without Leave. Assembled Every person belonging to Settlement Marines & Free people under arms & Examined Witnesses on Oath against Thos Watson Convict & a Prisoner for stealing a Shirt from James Williams Private Marine.

 

24th May: Thos Jones who is become a Settler this day took possesion of a Lot of Ground near the Great Cascade—

 

The 4th of June, being the anniversary of his Majesty’s birth-day, it was observed as a holiday. The colours were hoisted at sun-rise: at noon, the marines and free people drew up under arms, to the right and left of the two three-pounders which were on the parade, in front of my house. The male convicts were also drawn up on the right, and the females on the left. Three rounds of the guns and musquetry were fired; after which, the whole party gave three cheers, and were dismissed.

In consideration of the behaviour of the convicts on the day when the hurricane happened, and their general conduct since the discovery of the plot, I was induced to let them partake of the general festivity of the day; and ordered half a pint of rum for each man, and a pint of wine for each woman, for them to drink his Majesty’s health: the officers dined at my table, and on our drinking the King’s health after dinner, three rounds of the great guns were fired: in the evening bonfires were lighted up, and the front windows of my house were illuminated with the initials G. R.

When every person was assembled, and before the firing began, I ordered the prisoner, Thomas Watson, who was in confinement for a theft, (and whom I proposed sending to Port Jackson to be tried) to be brought out, and in consideration of the day I forgave him.

Fresh Gales & Cloudy with some Squalls of Rain at Sunrise hoisted ye Colours in observance of His Majesties Birth day, at Noon Assembled The Marines & Militia under arms on the Parade. The Male Convicts drawn up on one Side & ye Other A Guard brought ye Colours out & planted them on one of the Guns, fired 3 rounds of ye Great Guns & Small Arms after which the whole gave 3 Cheers. When they were dismissed, gave the Marines double allowance of Rum, to each of the Male Convicts ½ a pint & to each Woman one Pint of Wine at Night Bonfires were lighted & ye front Windows of my house was illuminated As this is the first Celebration of His Majesties Birth-day on this Island I forgave Thos Watson a Convict till now under confinement for theft which was proved on him & he was intended to be sent to Port Jackson to be tryed for it 2 Lame 1 Sick—NB 3 rounds of the Great Guns were fired on drinking His Majesties health after dinner; having invited all the Officers to dinner on the occassion

13th July: punished Mary Gamble with 3 dozen lashes for theft.

At day-light in the morning of the 13th, we perceived his Majesty’s armed tender, the Supply, in the road: the surf at that time ran very high in Sydney-Bay, and there being but little easterly wind, with a strong flood-tide, she could not get to Ball-Bay before three o’clock in the afternoon; when I received my letters from Governor Phillip, who informed me, that he had sent Lieutenant John Cresswell, of the marines, with fourteen privates, to the island; that Mr. Cresswell was to put himself under my command; and that in case of my death, or absence, the government of the island was to devolve on him.

Moderate Gales & Cloudy Wr the Surf high untill high Water at 3 P.M. then landed from the Supply Lieut John Cresswell & 14 Private Marines with a part of their Baggage.

Sunday 14. Landed the Marines & Men Convicts early in the afternoon & the next morning the Lt. Governor & part of the Women Convicts in Cascade Bay, by backing the Boat in from which they jump on a Rock , one at a time keeping the boat on her Oars & frequently obliged to pull out several times before a boat load can be landed: the Rock on which you land you cannot pass from after 1/2 flood it being seperated from the shore & there being always a surge upon the shore would be dangerous crossing after 1/2 flood or till 1/2 ebb, this Rock being detached & steep too makes safe landing in So.erly winds, the Rock

1790
March.
for landing lies to the Et.ward of the stoney beach some distance.

Monday, 15th: The wind coming to the Et.ward we had drifted so far to leeward that it was a considerable time before we could get the Ship far enough to windward for the boats to reach the landing place, about Noon we landed the remainder of the Women Convicts & thought ourselves exceeding fortunate in having made so good a passage & having had so good an opportunity of landing so great a number of people, but the most difficult part yet remained, that of landing the Provisions & Stores for them & which could only be done in Sydney Bay, where the settlement is made: While off Cascade Bay we made the landing place by several Observations in Latitude 29:021/2. Longitude 168:02E by Timekeeper

26th July: Punished—[William] Holmes Convict with 3 dozen lashes for absenting himself from his task.

Edward Gaff, a convict, was punished with 100 lashes on the 6th, for stealing three quarts of wheat: indeed, scarcely a day passed without complaints being made of thefts, which were committed with such dexterity that it was impossible to detect them. That thefts in so small a society should so frequently happen was really astonishing; but when it is considered, that the greatest part of that society were hardened villains, the wonder will cease.

at 2 P.M. punished Edward Gaff Convict with 100 lashes for stealing 3 Quarts of of Wheat out of ye bag of Wheat which he was carrying to Arthurs Vale to be sowed there.

22nd July: Do Wr People all employed as before. Jno Jones Male & Mary Gamble Female Convicts, informed me that the term of their Transportations Expired this day, Ordered the same Answer to be read to them which was read to Thos Jones on the 4th April.

*Probably July 3rd. See entry for July 8th above.
Mary Gamble (Gabel) was sentenced to seven years on 13 Jan. 1784. Jno. Jones to 14 years on 28 Feb. 1783. Thos. Jones reported that his time had expired on April 5th, not 4th. see p. 221 supra.

Nothing material happened in the course of this month until the 28th, when a tree fell on John Bryant, a convict, which bruised his head so much that he died two hours afterwards. This man was one among the very few honest convicts which I had on the island.

28th July: Strong Gales & dark Gloomy Weather with Rain People all employed as before. at 10 AM a large tree fell on John Bryant Convict working in Arthurs Vale & bruised his head so much that he died in two hours. at 4 PM interred ye DD. & read ye Funeral service over him 1 Lame & 2ss.

Clearing away ground for cultivation and other necessary work 30
Sawyers sawing scantlings, and boards for buildings            2 2 free.
Carpenters building a house for Lieutenant Cresswell           2 1 free.
Blacksmith making and repairing necessary iron work            1 1 free.
Coblemen fishing                                               3
Gardeners                                                      2 1 free.
Making shingles                                                4
Schoolmaster 1, officers servants 3, care of stock 1           5
Total                                                         49 5

 

After divine service on the 16th, (Sunday) the following orders were read for preserving regularity and good order among the inhabitants of the island.

Orders

I. All persons on the island are regularly to attend muster and divine service, unless prevented by sickness: a disobedience of this order will be punished by extra-work, or by stopping a day’s provisions for the first offence; which, if repeated, will be punished by corporal chastisement.

II. No persons are to absent themselves from their quarters, either by night or day, except they have obtained leave, or are going to their respective work; and if any one is observed lurking about after the watch is set, he will be fired at by the centinel.

III. The working hours are to be regularly attended to, and all persons absent from their work after the drum beats for that purpose, will lose a portion of the time they may save from their tasks; and in case of a second offence, they will be severely punished.

IV. The tasks will be continued as usual, and the time saved by the gangs is at their own disposal: those who distinguish themselves by employing their time in cultivating their gardens, and clearing ground for their own use, will meet with encouragement and reward.

V. If the overseers, or the greatest part of any gang, should have reason to complain of the idleness of any one man belonging to that gang, and the complaint should be found just, the offender will be severely punished.

VI. Those who render themselves unable to work by their neglect or obstinacy, in not building themselves warm huts, or who cut themselves through carelessness, will have a part of their provisions stopped until they are able to go to work again.

VII. All the tools and utensils are to be returned regularly every night to the store-house when the retreat beats; and any person who is found secreting any tool, or any article of the King’s stores, or committing any robbery whatever, will, on detection and conviction, receive such punishment on the island as his Majesty’s Justices of the peace may judge the offence deserves; or the offender will be sent to Port Jackson, to be tried by the criminal court, as the commandant may judge proper.

VIII. It is recommended to every one to be very careful of their cloathing, and every free person or convict is strictly forbid buying or selling any article of slop cloathing: those who disobey this order will be prosecuted for buying or selling the King’s stores, whether free people or convicts.

IX. Whenever it may be necessary to make any complaint, the person making the complaint is to inform the corporal of the guard, who will immediately report it; when the commandant (or, in his absence, Lieutenant John Cresswell,) will hear the complaint and decide upon it.

X. Disobedience of orders, insolence to officers or overseers, or any other improper behaviour, tending to the disturbance of the peace, or hindrance of the King’s service, will meet with severe punishment; and a regular, honest, good behaviour, will meet with encouragement and reward.

His Majesty’s justices of the peace for this island, viz. the Commandant and Lieutenant John Cresswell, (on whom the government of the island devolves, in case of the commandant’s death or absence) have appointed Roger Morley and John Altree, to hold the office of constables; and every person is ordered to be assisting to either or both of them in the execution of their office.

Such were the laws, which our then situations required.

On the 29th August, Ann Coombs, a female convict, received fifty lashes at the cart’s tail, for defrauding Thomas Jones, of some provisions: this punishment, however, did not deter her from committing crimes of a similar nature; for the very next day she was detected stealing two new check shirts from Francis Mee, a private marine, and was punished with 100 lashes.

29th :punished Ann Coombs Female Convict with 50 lashes for defrauding Thos Jones of a Quantity of Provisions—

Moderate Breezes & Very pleasant Wr at 10 AM performed Divine Service. at 1 P.M. punished Ann Coombs Female Convict with 100 Lashes for Stealing two Cheque Shirts from Francis Mee Private Marine, which she hid & refused to produce them—

The corporal of marines, who was a very industrious young man, had cleared and planted a piece of ground, and by attention and assiduity, had raised a quantity of vegetables, besides a very fine crop of potatoes, which would have yielded him at least five bushels; but, on the evening of the 5th September, between sun-set and the time of the watch being set, some villains dug up every one of the potatoes, and destroyed a quantity of other vegetables; and although the convicts were mustered in their huts at sun-set, and three times more during the night, yet the theft was not discovered until the next morning, when a very strict search was made, in order to find out the offender, but to no purpose, as the potatoes were (in the cant phrase) all planted; viz. buried in the ground, so as to be taken out as they were wanted.

This was one of the many acts of villainy that were daily committed by these atrocious wretches.

This Evening—Some Notorious Villians Stole almost Every Article of Vegetables out of Corporal Govens Garden which he had with great industry & perseverance Cleared & Cultivated, The Theft Must have been committed between dark & eight o’clock As all ye Convicts are mustered in their houses after the Watch is sett.

Catherine Johnson, a female convict, was punished with fifty lashes on the 7th, for abusing the store-keeper, and accusing him of theft wrongfully.

Punished Catherine Johnson Female Convict with 50 lashes

14th  September  :One Female Child born.

Robert Webb, a seaman belonging to the Sirius, went on the 15th, to the valley above the Cascade-Bay; having obtained my permission to become a settler, if Governor Phillip should have no objection to it.

9th October: Punished Noah Mortimer, Thos Watson & Jno Holmes Convicts with 2 Dozen lashes each for loitering & Idling their time at Work —

23rd Oct:I went along shore this Morning & found a part of ye Bones belonging to one of ye People who were drowned here in August 1788 — Brot them to Sydney Bay & interred them —

28th Oct:Punished Joseph Long with 100 Lashes for lending out Shoes which he had to mend —

On the 3d of December, at day-light, the Supply arrived. In the course of the day, six men and eight women convicts were landed

Twenty-two male convicts and one female [Mary Watkins 3/12/1789] arrived by the Supply, but no provisions were sent along with them,

Our present numbers were now as follow, viz.

Civil and military, 32
Male convicts,      79
Female convicts,    33
Children,            5
Total              149

14th December: Jno Anderson Convict with 200 Lashes for Robbing a Garden, pursuant to the Sentence of the two Justices & Wm Blackhall Convict with 50 lashes for treating Mr Dunnavan with Contempt & ye Commandants orders with Insolence —

At sun-rise on the 25th, the colours were hoisted, in observance of Christmas-day; divine service was performed at ten o’clock, and I ordered two hogs, belonging to the crown, to be killed and issued out to the free people and convicts, at the rate of one pound and an half to each person: and, as the crop of wheat had turned out tolerably well, I ordered two pounds of flour to each man, and the women one pound each, to celebrate the festival.

21st Jan: Do Wr Employed as before Gathering Indian Corn. Punished James Burn Convict with 25 lashes for Stealing Indian Corn —

Some villain stabbed a very fine sow which was near farrowing, on the 18th, but though the strictest enquiry was made, I could not discover who was the perpetrator of this atrocious act.

Some of the Convicts killed a Sow belonging to the Crown which could not be discovered.

Most of the labourers were now employed in cutting down, gathering, and cleaning the Indian corn, a vast quantity of which was destroyed by the parroquets, although men were constantly employed in beating them off with long poles.

A greater number of people were sick during this month, than had been the case since my landing on the island. The complaint, in general, was a diarrhoea, but those who had this disorder were soon recovered. The surgeon was of opinion that the great change of weather which had happened, joined to the great quantity of vegetables that were daily consumed, was the cause of this sickness.

The appearance of a vessel in the road at day-light in the morning of the 29th, caused the greatest acclamations of joy through the whole settlement; every person imagining that ships had arrived from England; especially as the Supply had been with us so recently: but, presently afterwards, we perceived it to be that vessel; and on receiving my letters from the governor, I found that no ships had arrived from our native country; which piece of intelligence being circulated through the settlement, a dejection took place equal to the joy that was visible a short time before.

Twenty-two male convicts and one female arrived by the Supply, but no provisions were sent along with them, there being only a sufficient quantity at Port Jackson to serve until the latter end of May, at the present allowance; and as our crops had been good, and our resources, with respect to fish and vegetables, were greater than at Port Jackson, the governor had thought proper to send this additional number of convicts.

Our present numbers were now as follow, viz.

Civil and military, 32
Male convicts,      79
Female convicts,    33
Children,            5
Total              149

I was also informed by Governor Phillip, that as it was necessary for the Sirius to have her full complement of officers, he had ordered me to be discharged from that ship; and had appointed Mr. Newton Fowell to be second-lieutenant in my room, and Mr. Henry Waterhouse to be third-lieutenant, instead of Lieutenant George William Maxwell, who was reported by the surgeons to be insane.

Richard Phillimore, a convict, had informed me that the term of his transportation expired on the 16th of January; and having taken the oath administered on that occasion, he signified a wish of becoming a settler: as he was a sober, industrious man, I gave him time to consider of it, and to look out for a situation where he would like to settle at: he informed me on the 22d, that he still was desirous of fixing on the island, and had found a spot where he wished to reside; on which, I sent some labourers to build him an house, and to clear away a little ground for a commencement; I also gave him a sow with young, and some poultry, and he was fully of opinion, that in one year, or two at farthest, he should be able to support himself, without any assistance from the settlement.

RALPH CLARK AND 13/3/1790 VOYAGE TO NORFOLK ISLAND

March Munday 1st. Fine clear weather a fresh Sea Breeze all of use going to Norfolk Island (Majr. Ross Excepted) dinned with the Govenor to day by the Genl. order of this day the following order is out No officer Soldier or other Persons (those who are to Embark Excepted) are to Kill Sell or otherwise dispose of any live Stock untill further orders as Some necessary regulation will take place in a few days …

March 1790 Tuesday 2 Moderate weather Sent Some of my things on board of the Sirius this morning and after dinner went on board of the Sirius with Some more of my things by the orders of to day we are to Embark to morrow afternoon half after three oClock See the orderly Book bought another Sow for which I gave two Guineas for gave Davey four Guineas for the Sow which he let me have She is big with Pigg.—

Wednessday 3th. Fine Moderate weather after Breakfast Sent my Cott on board with the Remainder of my things by the Orders of Yesterday the two Companies of use Embark According to the Arrangment of the 28 of Feby. we have carried the colors with use after having lodged them and Seen the Detachment in the place allotted for them on board I came on Shore again for the Night as Majr. Ross and Capt. Campble disired I would paid Every body that I am endebted to in this part of the World I wish I could Say all over the World but I hope that I Shall have that pleasure Soon. —

Thursday 4th very fine clear weather Captain Campble made up a Bed for me after Breakfast Sent all my Stock on Board Consisting of two Sows one Cock and Six hens I have left my house in the care of Sergeant Chapman with liberty to live in it untill my Return if ever I should wont it at twelf oClock all of use that are going to Norfolk met at Majr. Ross’s house and went with him to the Governors to take our leave of him after which I went on board to See my thing put to Right and order my Servant to put what things I may want on the passage to be nearest at hand in my Cabin I have parted with Ellis having had Some words with him and he Answering Shorter than I think he Should have done I told him to goe to his duty he is ane honest man for I never knew him wrong me of a Single thing in my life I shall be Sorry for parting with him dined at Majr. Ross and drank Tea after which Majr. Ross John and myself went on board as we Sail toMorrow as all the Convicts are come on board from Rose Hill that goes to Norfolk the Bill which I had from Davey I have left it with Captain Campble to purchas me Some Tea and Sugar and Some Soap from the first Ships that may Arrive Captain Campble has been very kind he askd me if I wanted anything that he had he would let me have it I told him I was much obliged to him he Said I no that You have not much Tea I have put up a caddy for you with Majr. Ross's he also gave me half a dozen pair of Stocking which I want very much the Sivility and friendship that Captain Campble has Shown to me I am affraid I never will have it in my power to make him a Sufficient Acknowlegement for his attention has been more like a father than a friend his and Majr. Rosses friendship to me is what I call real and Sinceer .—

Friday 5th Cloudy weather It Rain a little in the night about Six oClock this morning we got under way ther being little wind from the S:W: the Supply a little after use Captain Campble came on board to take leave of use and to Breakfast with Majr. Ross and Captain Hunter he left the Ship a little after Eight when we got as low down the Harbour as my farm Island we were obliged to come to ane Anchor for the Sea Breess Set in very Strong and there was too much Sea in the mouth of the Harbour to attemp going out Majr. Ross little John and Mr. Consident who goes with use to Norfolk as Surgeon Messes with Captain Hunter; Johnstone, Kellow and my Self Mess inthe Gun Room with the officers of the Sirius dined with Captain Hunter and after dinner went on Shore with Capt. Hunter, Majr. Ross, little John and Mr. Consident to the look out at the mouth or South Head of the Harbour Returnd on board to Tea did not Sleep well last night

March 1790 Saterday 6th. Fine Moderate weather little wind about Six oClock got under way a great Swell Setting into the Harbour just as we came abreast of the outer South Head it fell calm and the Swell was Setting us fast to leward on the North Head which had not a puff of wind fild the Sails we should have been drove on Shore on the North Head and every body on board thought of no other but that we should if we had the Ship would have been in pices in a few minutes from the great Sea that was breaking on the Rocks and the most of use on board would have been lost but by great good fortune the puff of wind Shoved use clear out of the harbour as it did the Supply when we had got a little from under the land we Soon got a fresh Breeze from the South Ward which is a fair wind I have been very Sick all day; Sea Sick as was every body in the Ship for a few hours after we got out of the Harbour about 12 oClock we were out of Sight of the Land of New Holland could eat nothing all this day nor drink any thing except a little Tea I am a poor Soul at Sea for I am mostly alwayse Sea Sick Majr. Ross and little John have been much worse than I am I hope that it will have left me Since we have got a fair wind and a nuff of it I hope that we will Soon be at Norfolk if this wind Remains we will be there by this day week good Night my Love—

Sunday 7th. Fine weather and a good fair Breeze went by the Log Since Yesterday noon untill to day 12 oClock 148 miles Wind S:E:bS have been very Sea Sick and between decks there Such a disagreable Smell from the women that are Sea Sick that it is a nuff to Suffocate one there is [BLANK] convict women on board for Norfolk and there is not one but what is Sea Sick

March 1790 Munday 8th. Fresh Gales Wind S:S:E: the distance that we went Since Yesterday 148 miles not So Sea Sick as I have been I hope this wind will continue with use untill we get to norfolk for if it Should we will be there in a few days expect to See Lord Hows Island to morrow the Sow which I bought from Davey Pigg this morning ten fine Piggs I hope that the[y] will all live—

Tuesday 9th. Fine clear weather with Light Breezes from the Southward at ½ past 2 this morning came in Sight of Lord Hows Island Stood in for it after Breakfast Lieut Ball of the Supply came on board for leave to Send a Boat on Shore to See if the[y] could get any Turtles which was granted him the Land is very high but is a very Small Island not being more than [BLANK] miles in circumference the Pyramid we came also in Sight of about the Same time that we did the Island the Pyramid is distance from Lord Hows Island about fifteen miles it is the most Extrodinary pile of Rocks that I ever Saw or I may Say every was seen, it is very high Mount Gower on Lord Hows Island is very high but the Pyramid is much higher there was an innumerable number of different Sea Bird on the Pyramid as there is constantly about Sun Set we past between the Pyramid and Lord Hows Island the Supply was close in under the land about 6 oClock this Evening the Breeze freshend did not Speak the Supply to day there dont no if She has got any Turtle or not got Quit well having got the Better of my Sea Sickness —

Wednessday 10th. Fine weather with Moderate Breezes from the Northward which is Still a good wind the Supply in company who haild use and informd use that She had got no Turtles went the distance Since Yesterday noon 88 miles a great number of Birds about the Ship particular the Tropical Bird

March 1790 Thursday 11 Fine Moderate weather with the wind N:N:W: and W:S:W: which is as fine a wind as can blow for use for our course is N70 E went Since Yesterday 133 miles I shall be very happy when I get out of the Ship for the[y] are not the most pleasent Set that I ever Saw in a Ship the[y] are quit the contrary —

Friday 12th. Cloudy weather with fresh gales from the S:W: went Since Yesterday 144 Expect to See the Land to morrow morning early hope that there will be good landing a great number of Tropical Birds about the Ship the Supply in Company—

Saterday 13 Moderate and Clear Weather wind W:S:W: about ½ past 2 this morning came in Sight of Norfolk Island about Six Saw Phillip Island and Nepean Island Stood in for Sydney Bay Saw the colours at the higher flag Staff but no flag at the lower flag Staf from ther no flag flying there found that the Boats could not land Lieut Ball came on Board from the Supply and asked leave to goeround to Balls Bay and he would Endeavour to land there or throw a letter on Shore to Mr. King which leave was granted about Nine oClock the Supply made the Signal that there was good Landing in Cascade Bay Made Sail and Stood away for Cascade Bay about ½ past ten hoisted the Boats out and Sent as many of the male Convicts as the[y] would carry on shore with them about ½ past one the Boats Returnd from Landing the convicts and informd use that there was very good landing on which Lieut Kellow and my Self with as many of the marines as the Boats would hold with what things they could take were orderd into them got on Shore about half after two not without getting my feet wett I never landed in Such a Bad place in my life at the best of times it is very bad Landing for there is always a great Swell Round the Island and you are oblige to wait for a Smooth time to pull the Boat in to a Rock and you back the Boat in Stern formost and you are oblige to be very Quick to jump out one at a time and then the Boat puls off to Wait a nother Smooth for it is impossible for the Boat to lay along Side of the Rocks for Should a Swell come while the Boats there it would dash her to pices every body in the Boats that came on Shore when I came landed very well found on our landing Capt. Johnstone and Lieut Faddy with the party from the Supply who also got on Shore very well I was directd to inform Capt. Johnstone from Majr. Ross that he and the detachment from the Supply were to goe on to the Town and that we that came from the Sirius Should Waite Majr. Rosses coming which would be in the first Boats on which Johnstone and his party went in for the Town Soon after our landing a Boat load of Women and children came on Shore but while the[y] were landing them a Sea Brok into the Boat which frightend them very much I wonder that the Boat not lost and every body in her for the women would not Sit Still but made a terrible noise both them and ther children but the[y] all got Save on Shore after waiting Some time According to orders on the beach for Majr. Ross the Boat with Majr. Ross we Saw coming but when the Boat came near the Rock I cald to him that the tide was to hight for it had Surounded the Rock and that it would be impossible to get where we was on the beach without getting very wett on which he and a nother Boat full of women Returnd on board again it been now near four oClock Kellow and my Self with the People that were Landed proceed to the Town as Quick as we could the Town from Cascade is between four and five miles a very bad Road we could not march fast as the Men were loaded with what things the[y] could bring with them on Shore before we got up into the Road we had a Terrible high hill to get up almost perpendicular the country is much thicker of wood than at port Jackson you can hardly get throu the wood it is so thick we got to the Town a little before Sun Set where in place of finding houses for the officers and Barracks for the Detachment & convicts as Governor Phillips Said that we would there is hardly places for the people that is here before use to put there heads in I was Quarterd one a Mr. Jamison one of the Surgeons mates of the Sirius who was Sent here about two Years Since on the Islands first Setteling Capt. Johnstone, Kellow & Faddy are distributed upon others the Same as I am the Detachment amongst the party that we found here and the Convicts where they Could found Creswell, King and every body very well this is I am told is a very Remarkable healthy place there having not been a Natural Death Since the Islands first Settling

Sunday 14 Fine weather after Breakfast Mr. Kellow and Self walkd to Cascade to meet Majr. Ross's coming on Shore on the Road we met a great many of the Convicts both Men and Women Particular the women that have young children Who told me that the[y] have been obliged to Sleep in the woods all night for the[y] could not get into Town, poor Devils how they are Kick about from one place to a nother we got to cascade about 11 oClock when Soon after Majr. Ross Came on Shore and Landed very well Lieut. Johnstone, Mr. Consident and little John came in the Boat with Majr. Ross but I think Captain Hunter might have been more Civil in Sending Majr. Ross on Shore than in the manner he did for I think that had Majr. Ross been a Convict he could have been treated wors than he was to day by Capt. Hunter in the Manner he was Shoved out of the Ship by him into a boat Loaded full with Cotts, hamocks, Hoggs, Pigs, Geese, Turkeys, Fouls &c So much that he had not room for his feet and when he landed on the Rock he was So much crampt that he could hardly Stand I Saw on Majr. Rosses Landing that he felt very much on the manner he was Sent out of the Ship but I hope Majr. Ross has too much good Sense to take any Notice of it after we got all the things out of the Boat we walk toward the Camp (or Town) on Majr. Rosses entring it all the people were assembled and gave him three cheers we all dined at Mr. Kings and after dinner we all walked out to the farm Majr. Ross and Self had a little conversation about different things He takes up his Quarters at Mr. Kings Majr. Ross on his Landing took the Command of the Island See the orderly Book Munday 15

Fine weather after dinner went over to Cascade to See if any of my things are Sent on Shore as I sent word on board by the Boat that Majr. Ross Came on Shore in for my Servant to Send my Bed on Shore as I dont feel myself comfortable where I have Sleep these two night past Majr. Ross has given the Convicts that came with use all this week to Errect themself hutts

Tuesday 16 Fine Weather Still to much Surf on the Reef to permit the Boats to Land any thing from the Ships if the[y] were in the Bay I told Major Ross that I wished to be Quartered Some where else than at the place where I am at present when he Said that I Should be removed from Mr. Jamisons and he would make up a Bed at Mr. Kings for me untill I got my own on Shore

Wednessday 17 Blows fresh the Surf gone down much Shall expect the Ships round tomorrow as there will be good landing Sleep at Mr. Kings in the Same Room where Majr. Ross and little John we all Sleep on the ground walk after dinner over to Cascade Bay but the Ships not in Sight

Thursday 18 Blows fresh but very little Surf I wish to god the Ships would come in Sight that I might get my things So that I might have a clean Shirt to put on for the Shirt and things which I have on now are as black as the back the chimney

[ALL FRIENDSHIP GIRLS ON SIRIUS]

At the break of day on the 13th of March, I was alarmed with a tumultuous noise of huzzaing and rejoicing; on enquiry into the cause, I found that two vessels were seen in the offing. (which we found were the Sirius and Supply,)

I found by the governor’s letter, that he had sent Lieutenant-Governor Ross in the Sirius, to take the command at Norfolk-Island, .. I was farther directed to embark on board the Sirius, whose commander had orders to receive me on board, with all such petty officers, seamen, and marines, belonging to that ship, who were not desirous of becoming settlers; directions having been given the Lieutenant-Governor to that effect. Lieutenant-Governor Ross brought with him, one captain, five subalterns, a number of non-commissioned officers and privates, with the colours: also a number of male and female convicts, and children; with their proportion of cloaths, provisions, and stores.

This day, Jeremiah Leary, a convict, ran the gantlet among the convicts for a theft, and was severely punished.

Jeremiah Leary ran the Gauntlet among the Convicts for theft & was severely punished.

THE LOSS OF THE SIRIUS

Soon afterwards, the Sirius hove to, in order to hoist her boats out, which, being accomplished, she made sail; but the tide of flood still ran very strong, and she could not weather the outer rock of the reef which runs off Point Ross: after an unsuccessful attempt to stay, she wore and came to the wind on the starboard tack: unfortunately, the wind shifted to the south-east, and the strong hold which the tide had on the ship, forced her near the island, and she got to the back of the reef: she was now hove in stays, but having fresh stern way, she tailed on the reef and struck. The masts were instantly cut away, and the surf increasing along-side of her, only two boats load of provisions could be got out: an anchor was let go, which prevented the ship from coming broadside to on the reef. From noon until four o’clock, every person was employed in getting a hawser from the ship, and fastening it to a tree on the shore: a heart was fixed on the hawser as a traveller, and a grating was slung to it, fastened to a small hawser, one end of which was on shore and the other end on board.

At five o’clock, the surgeon’s mate came on shore by the grating, being hauled through a very great surf: he brought me a note from Captain Hunter, desiring to know if I thought it would be safe for the sailors to abide by the wreck all night. The wind was now at south, and the weather had a very threatening appearance, and as the surf had risen considerably, I thought there was the utmost danger of the ship’s parting at the flowing tide, the consequence of which must have been the destruction of every person on board: I therefore made a signal for the wreck to be quitted, and by the time it grew dark, the captain and most of the sailors were on shore, being dragged through a very heavy surf; many of them received violent blows from the rocks over which they were dragged.

Captain Hunter and Mr. Waterhouse were got on shore together, and just as they got footing on the reef, the captain was so much exhausted, that he had nearly quitted his hold: the first and second lieutenant, with some of the sailors, remained on board all night.

The instant the ship struck, Lieutenant-Governor Ross ordered the drums to assemble all the marines and convicts: martial law was then proclaimed, and the people were told that if any one killed any animal or fowl, or committed any robbery whatever, they would be instantly made a severe example of. The officers and marines were ordered to wear their side-arms: guards were set over the barn and store-houses, and some other necessary regulations were ordered by the Lieutenant-Governor.

On the 20th, we had very strong gales of wind at south, and a great surf running: by four o’clock, every person were got out of the wreck without any other accident than receiving a few bruises. Those who came last from the wreck, reported, that the beams of the lower deck were started from the side, and that at high water, the sea came to the after hatchway on the lower deck, the fore part of the ship being under water; and that the provisions were mostly on deck.

The gale continued very strong on the 21st, with a heavy surf running; but the wreck being in the same position as the preceding day, we entertained the pleasing hopes of being able to save all the provisions, and most of the ship’s effects.

At ten in the morning, Lieutenant-Governor Ross, Captain Hunter, all the commissioned officers of marines and of the Sirius, and myself, assembled in the government-house, when the lieutenant governor laid the situation of the island before the meeting, and pointed out the necessity of a law being made, by which criminals might be punished with death for capital crimes, there being no law in force on the island that could notice capital offences: he also proposed the establishment of martial law until further orders, which was unanimously agreed to; and that in all cases where sentence of death was pronounced, five persons out of seven should concur in opinion: it was also resolved, that all private stock, Indian corn, and potatoes should be given in to the store-keeper, and appropriated for the use of the public; and that every person should go to half allowance of provisions until it should be known what quantity could be saved from the wreck; also, that three locks should be put on the store-house and barn; one key to be in the possession of Captain Hunter, another in possession of a person to be named by the lieutenant-governor, and the third to be kept by a person to be named by the convicts.

These resolutions were agreed to, and signed by the lieutenant-governor and the rest of the officers assembled.

At eight o’clock in the morning of the 22d, all persons on the island were assembled near the lower flag-staff, on which the union was hoisted: the marines were drawn up in two lines, leaving a space in the center, at the head of which was the union. The colours of the detachment were then unfurled, and the Sirius’s crew were drawn up on the right, and the convicts on the left, the officers being in the center. The proclamation was then read, declaring, that the island was to be governed by martial law, until further orders: the lieutenant-governor next addressed the convicts, and, after pointing out the situation of the settlement, he exhorted them to be honest, industrious, and obedient. This being concluded, the whole gave three cheers; and every person, beginning with the lieutenant-governor, passed under the union flag, taking off their hats as they passed it, in token of an oath to submit and be amenable to the martial law, which had then been declared.

After this ceremony was concluded, the convicts and the Sirius’s crew were sent round to Cascade-Bay, where a proportion of flour and pork was received from the Supply, and brought round to the settlement.

In the afternoon, John Brannagin and William Dring (two convicts) offered to go on board the wreck, in order to heave the live stock over-board; and having obtained the permission of Captain Hunter and the Lieutenant-Governor, they went to the wreck, and sent a number of pigs and some poultry on shore, but they remained on board; and at the dusk of the evening, a light was perceived in the after part of the ship; on which, a volley of small arms were fired, to make them quit the wreck, or put the light out; which not being done, a three pounder shotted was fired into the wreck, but with no effect: on this, John Arscot, a convict carpenter, offered to go off; and although it was quite dark, and the surf ran very high, yet he got on board, and obliged the other two convicts to quit the wreck by the hawser. Arscot hailed the shore, but we could not understand what he said, except that he should stay on board the wreck. Brannagin (one of the convicts) was drunk when he came on shore.

On the 23d, we had very strong gales of wind at west by north, but the landing was good early in the morning, and the large coble was sent on board the Supply, (which was in the road) with some of my baggage, and the officers and men belonging to the Sirius, who were going to Port Jackson. The master of the Sirius, with eight men, went on board the wreck by the hawser, and a triangle was erected on the reef, to keep the bight of the hawser from the ground; which would greatly facilitate the landing any article from the wreck. The master informed Captain Hunter, by a note, that Brannagin and Dring (the two convicts) had set fire to the wreck, which had burnt through the gun deck; but had been happily extinguished by Arscot, who went on board to send them out of the ship: on this, they were ordered into confinement previous to their being tried for setting fire to the wreck.

The weather being moderate and pleasant in the morning of the 24th, I went on board the Supply, along with Lieutenants Waterhouse and Fowell, and twenty-two of the crew, belonging to the late Sirius; and at noon, we made sail for Port Jackson.

Lieutenants Waterhouse and Fowell, and twenty-two of the crew, belonging to the late Sirius; and at noon, we made sail for Port Jackson.

Tuesday 16

Fine Weather Still to much Surf on the Reef to permit the Boats to Land any thing from the Ships if the[y] were in the Bay I told Major Ross that I wished to be Quartered Some where else than at the place where I am at present when he Said that I Should be removed from Mr. Jamisons and he would make up a Bed at Mr. Kings for me untill I got my own on Shore

Wednessday 17 Blows fresh the Surf gone down much Shall expect the Ships round tomorrow as there will be good landing Sleep at Mr. Kings in the Same Room where Majr. Ross and little John we all Sleep on the ground walk after dinner over to Cascade Bay but the Ships not in Sight

Thursday 18 Blows fresh but very little Surf I wish to god the Ships would come in Sight that I might get my things So that I might have a clean Shirt to put on for the Shirt and things which I have on now are as black as the back the chimney

Friday 19 this Morning about Seven oClock the Ships came in Sight it blow fresh in the Morning but towards 9 oClock it became more Moderate a little after ten the Supply came well into the Bay and Sent her Boats with the Baggagd of the Detachment and with what Stores, Provisions &c: for the Settlement that he has onboard on Shore about 11 oClock the Sirius been well in the [bay] hoisted her Boats out and Sent them on shore with Provisions at this time She was laying too under Nepean Island Soon after She made Sail and was Endeavouring to get father out of the Bay, for She was too near the Shore, She was obliged to goe about for She could not weather the Reef of Point Ross but She mist Stays every body thought She would have been on Shore on the Reef when the[y] found that the Ship would not

View image | View single page

Stay the[y] wore her which She did only a few Yards from the Rock from there been obliged to wair, it only brought them So much the nearer the Shore the[y] could not Stand long this Way on account of the Reef which runs a long the Shore about 12 oClock the[y] Endevoured to put her about but She would not Stay She got in the trof of the Sea which forst her Stern formost on the Reef as the Bell rung 12 oClock She Struck when the[y] found that She Struck the[y] Cut a way all her mast gracious god what will become of use all, the whole of our Provision in the Ship now a Wreck before use I hope in god that we will be able to Save Some if not all but why doe I flatter myself with Such hopes there is at present no prospect of it except that of Starving what will become of the people that are on board for no boat can goe along Side for the Sea and her am I who has nothing more than what I stand in and not the Smales hope of my getting anything out of the Ship for every body expects that She will goe to pices when the tide comes in Soon after the Ship Struck Major Ross proclaimd Martial Law for which See the orderly Book and the Remainder of what followd in the day for I am So low that I cannot hold the pincle to write in short my pocket Book is foul and will not hold any more

Saterday 20 have been up all night as has every body in the place Soon after the Ship went on Shore trunks, Boxs beds &c what was nearest at hand was thrown over board in hopes it would float on Shore a great dele has come on Shore but as Yet nothing of mine Captain Hunter and between 30 and 40 of the people came on Shore on a graiting made fast to hauzher and the Remainder are coming on Shore as fast as the[y] can as Yet there is nobody drownd or lost I was very near

View image | View single page

been drownd Yesterday when I was going of on the Raft to assist the people that were coming on Shore almost drownd on of the Convict who could not Swim, fell of the Raft and pushd me along with him, in which case we Should both have been drownd if I could not have Swimd for the Raft went over use both and I was obligd to Swim back to the Shor with him holding fast to me by the waisband of my Trousers when I got on Shore he was almost dead but he Soon Recoverd on which I took a Stick out of one of the Serjeants hands and gave him a damd thrashing for pulling me of the Raft with him he better have been drown for I will give him the Same every day for this month to come that I meet him for orders See the orderly Book

Sunday 21 every body got Save on Shore Yesterday here there is above 500 hundred Souls and not above Six thousand wight of Flour in the Island to feed use with what will become of use god only knows See the Council or orderly Book for the Resolution we have Judged Necessary for the Safety of the Colony and which will be Read to every body in the Island to Morrow Several of the things came on Shore from the Ship.

Munday 22d a Eight oClock the Detachment got under arms and marchd down to the Beach where all the Seamen beloning to the Sirius and all the Convicts on the Island were Assembled according to orders when the Resolutions were Read for the Safety of the Island was Read to every body and as it would take up too much time to tender ane Oath to every body to bind them to the Resolutions it was therfore agreed passing Voluntary under the Kings Colours to be as binding in our present Situation as any Oath that Could be taking on the holy Evangelist which every body most chearfuly agreed too and every person man, woman & child in the Island did pass under the Colours Several of the Seamen got on board of the wreck who throu over board what things the[y] could get at my Trunk came on Shore with the Bottom out

View image | View single page

and I am affraid the greatest part of the things which were in it are lost as I have not as Yet got any of them except ane old Coat and four Shirts and I am affraid all my other things are gone the Same way as the people Say that went on board that everything that was in my Cabin the[y] throw over board if So heer I am without five Shirts a Waiscoat a pair of trousers a pair of old shoes a hat or a Coat and Jacket and not a Single thing to dress me a Single bit of Vitals in nor a Single bit of Soap to was me a Shirt nobody that came in the Ship has lost So many things as I have the most of them have Saved the greatest part of there Coaths al that I can Say I am a child of bad Luck Majr. Ross has also lost all his things and what he thinks wors than his coaths he has lost most all his papers

Tuesday 23 Several of the Seamen Orderd to Port Jackson in the Supply as there was to much Surf for the Boat to goe out the[y] were obliged to carry their things over to Cascade Bay to the Supply Capt. Hunter gave two of the Convicts leave to Swim on board of the Sirius if the[y] could to throw the live Stock over board the[y] got Save on board and throw a great number of Hogs, Goats, fouls over board the greatest part of them got Save on Shore amongst the number my two Sows but all the pigs were dead on board as wer my fouls except my Cocks who Swam on Shore the two Convicts got drunk and Some how or other got a Light which been Seen from the Shore the[y] were desired to come on Shore Several times and the[y] answerd that the[y] could not every one was affraid that the[y] would Set the Ship on fire if So we would loose all the provisions which we are now in great hopes of Saving as the Ship has held to gether So long ther is a great chance of her holding together much longer finding that the[y] did not intend coming on Shore one of the Convicts made ane offer to endeavour to Swim on board and Stay there if he could not get them out of the Ship to prevent

View image | View single page

them doing any Mischief to the Ship he got Save on board and finding them both Drunk and that the[y] had Set fire to the Ship he made them assist him in putting the fire out which he at last Effected after which he order them both on Shore where the[y] both got Save he Staid there al night and Said that he would come on Shore in the Morning the Reason of his Staying was that for fear the fire might break out again all the people could not get on board of the Supply Ball Sent use 5000 wight of Flour which is all that he can Spear

Wednessday 24 Askot the Convict that Swam on board last night of the Sirius and who put the fire out Reported to Majr. Ross and to Captain Hunter that had he not got on board as he did there would not have been a pice of the Ship but what would have been burnt as She was on fire in two places on which Majr. Ross orderd James Branigan and Wm. Dring in Irons Lieut King took leave of use and went to Cascade to goe on board the Supply for Port Jackson Waterhouse on[e] of the Lieut of the Sirius has been very kind to me finding that I had lost all my thing Sent me Six of his Shirts as he has Saved the most of his which I refused accepting as I did not See a probability of Repaying him it was very kind of him he goes to port Jackson and the letters which I have Sent to Port Jackson and home I have Sent by him by the General order of this day Majr. Ross has given Several of use Brevet Rank amongst the number he has appointed me to Act as Quarter Master General and Keeper of the Public Stores during the continuation of the Martial Law or untill His Excellency the Govenor in chief and Captain Generals pleasure is known See the orderly Book if I am paid for it it will be a good thing I wish to god I may it will help to pay for the things which I have lost in the Sirius

View image | View single page

Thursday 25 Some of the officers and the Seamen went on board who Sent on Shore Some provision and what things the[y] could get at all the Marines off duty Employd as Sentinel along the Beach to prevent the people from Embezzle things all the convicts Employd on the Reef in hauling the Casks on Shore and other Stores as the[y] Send them out of the Ship if it hold good weather as I hope in god it will we will beable to Save all the provisions one of the Convicts found my best Coat laying on the Reef which was brought me I got a nother of my Shirts to day in the Same way as I did my Coat

Friday 26 Every body Employd as Yesterday one of the Seamen in coming on Shore from the Ship to day Mr. Walker the Captains Clerk Seing him with a White Shirt on over all his other cloaths which proved to be one of mine which I took from by which the[y] must have brock my trunk open and taking all my thing out of it and then throw the Trunk with the Bottom out empty my Small Trunk came also to day on Shore without anything in it I own that I never Shall be able to get the Quarter of my things in Short I now give them up for lost I Represented of the Sailor having my Shirt on to Majr. Ross who in consequence cald the Council to gether who gave out a Proclamation for which See the Council Book got Several Casks of Flour and Salt Provisions on Shore to day

Saterday 27 Every body Employd as Yesterday got Several Casks of Flour, Beef, Pork, Rice and Some Spirits on Shore to day this been a fine day I orderd the Casks of Rice to be opend and dryd as the Salt water got into Some of the Casks

Sunday 28 a Great Swell Rolling into the bay which must occation a Most dreadful Surf every body Employd in assisting the People in getting on Shore from the wreck as the[y] Expect her to goe to Pices any moment the[y] all got Save on Shore in the afternoon She canted round.

View image | View single page

Munday 29th Very Fine weather but a Terrible Surf the People Employd in drying the Flour Rice Calavances that have got wet in Coming throu the Surf.

Tuesday 30th Still fine weather got Several Casks of different kinds of Provisions on Shore from the Wreck this is my Birthday this is the Worst that I ever Saw from the dreadful prospect before me that of Starving if Some thing dont come to our Relief or if we dont all exert our Selfs in clearing Ground for to put Corn or potatoes in

Wednessday 31st The people Employd as Yesterday .

APR 1790 April

Thursday 1st The people Employd as before – got Yesterday and to day near thirty Casks of different kinds of Provisions on Shore.

Friday 2d an order came out to day Respecting the People having ther Hogs Returnd to them – See the orderly Book – the people Empd. on the wreck as before.

Saterday 3th Fine weather – Still Every body Employd as Yesterday – the most of the Sailors on board of the Ship in Sending what the[y] can get at on Shore – the Remainder on the Reef with all the Convicts hauling it on Shore and rolling it up to the Store Yeard and all the Marines at Guard as Sentinels in Seing them bring it up.

Sunday 4th Fine dry weather – the people Employd as Yesterday Except a few men attending me in oppning and drying what Flour or Rice that has got wet – little Surf

Munday 5th the people Employd as Yesterday – Little Surf.

Tuesday 6th Fine weather – got a good number of Casks and other Stores on Shore

View image | View single page

Wednessday 7th. the people Employd as before in getting what the[y] can on Shore and drying what is wet – have as Yet got not any more of my things – little Surf on the Reef .

Thursday 8th the people Employd the Same as Yesterday – got but few thing from the Ship to day on Account of the Tide

Friday 9th Fine weather – the people Employd on the Reef and a party of the Sailors on the wreck – the Surf the[y] Say the people that have been here the longest is getting up – if So and it comes to blow it will break the wreck to pices

Saterday 10th

1239

Fine weather – got a few Casks of different kinds of Provisions on Shore to day – thank god we have had Such good weather to enable use to get So much on Shore as we have done – the Surf is going down again – as the greatest part of the Provision is now got Save onShore only the Sailors and forty of the Convicts are to be Employd in getting the Remainder on Shore – all the Rest of the Convicts are to be Employd the (Artificers Excepted) in Clearing ground for Corn potatoes &c and if we get the Remainder of the provisions out and Save on Shore I hope that we will be able to hold out untill the potatoes and Corn is ripe and before the potatoes and Corn is all gone – Since the Supply will have Returnd from where the Governour may have Sent her or Some Ships arrived with Supplys and I hope the Relief – Birds Kild by M.159, S.147, C.319 .

Sunday 11th Fine weather – little Surf – the people permited to Rest while the Tide is to hight for them to work on the wreck – Birds M.145, S.178, C.291

Munday 12 all the Seamen and a Gang of Convicts Employd in getting from the Ship what the[y] can – all the Rest of the Convicts Employd in Clearing Ground Artificers Excepted – the Carpenters Employd in Erecting ane addition to the Store house – the Sayers Employd in Cutting Boards [etc] – the Smiths at different Iron work – a party in making Shingles – the women Convicts in Brining in flax for thatch .General behaviour of the convicts, and other remarks.—

 

The few convicts that first landed with me, in general behaved well; but, as their numbers increased, they renewed their wicked practices: the most artful and daring thefts were now almost daily committed, and the perpetrators could seldom be discovered; and nothing but the certainty of meeting with a very severe punishment, and the mustering them frequently during the night in their huts could prevent these thefts in any degree whatever: indeed, they were often troublesome, and some of them were incorrigible, notwithstanding every encouragement was held out to them, and the indulgencies they received were fully sufficient to convince them that they would be treated according to their deserts: some few of them were susceptible of the advantages arising from industry and good behaviour; those of this description had the satisfaction of enjoying a quantity of Indian corn, potatoes, and other vegetables, which were a great assistance to them at the time they were put to short allowance of provisions; and some of them had cleared from one to three acres of ground, which they proposed sowing with Indian corn and potatoes: these formed a respectable set of convicts, compared to the greater part, who were idle, miserable wretches.

When I first landed on the island, the convicts were kept at day-work, having stated times for their dinners and other meals: this method answered very well whilst there were few to look after; but when their numbers increased, I had not people of confidence to overlook them and keep them at work: I therefore judged it would be more eligible to task them, taking the opinion of those whom I thought most conversant in the different kinds of work that were going forward.

The numbers of inhabitants I left on Norfolk Island were as follow:
 
Civil, military, and free 90
Belonging to the Sirius   80
Male convicts            191
Female convicts          100
Children                  37
Total                    498
 
The quantities of grain, potatoes, and live stock I left were
as follow:
 
Wheat,       from 250 to 300 bushels.
Barley                     6 bushels.
Indian corn       130 to 140 bushels.
 
Potatoes, one acre, would be ready to dig in May.
 
Hogs, large and small, belonging to the public, 26, besides 18
hogs, a quantity of poultry, 3 goats, and 1 ewe, my property; and
some stock belonging to individuals.
Land GrantsThe New Holland Morning Post, 18th October, 1791
The New Holland Morning Post, 18th October, 1791, also reports on
the 86 settlers who have been granted land at Parramatta and
Norfolk Island, comprising 31 marines, 11 seamen and 44 convicts
whose sentences had expired
  NAME ACRES LOCATION

Anderson, John 50 acres P’matta
Baffen, John 50 acres P’matta
Barrisford, John 60 acres N’folk Is.
Bell, William 10 acres N’folk Is.
Bishop, Joseph 50 acres P’matta
Bishop, Thomas 60 acres N’folk Is.
Bramwell, Thomas 60 acres N’folk Is.
Brand, Curtis 30 acres P’matta
Brown, John 60 acres P’matta
Burn, Simon 50 acres P’matta
Butler, William 50 acres P’matta
Castles, James 30 acres P’matta
Cavenaugh, Owen 60 acres N’folk Is.
Chipp, Thomas 60 acres N’folk Is.
Connell, Patrick 60 acres N’folk Is.
Cross, William 10 acres N’folk Is.
Dempsey, William 60 acres N’folk Is.
Dikes, Thomas 60 acres N’folk Is.
Drummond, John 60 acres N’folk Is.
Elliott, William 30 acres P’matta
Everingham, Mathew 50 acres P’matta
Fentun, Benjamin 10 acres N’folk Is.
Field, William 50 acres P’matta
Foley, John 60 acres N’folk Is.
Forrester, Robert 10 acres N’folk Is.
Gowen, John 60 acres N’folk Is.
Griffiths, Samuel 30 acres P’matta
Halfpenny, Thomas 60 acres N’folk Is.
Hambly, William 60 acres N’folk Is.
Hand, Abraham 60 acres N’folk Is.
Herbert, John 60 acres P’matta
Heritage, Charles 60 acres N’folk Is.
Hibbs, Peter 60 acres N’folk Is.
Hubbard, William 50 acres P’matta
Kelly, Thomas 30 acres P’matta
Kilby, William 50 acres P’matta
Kimberley, Edward 10 acres N’folk Is.
King, Samuel 60 acres N’folk Is.
Lisk, George 30 acres P’matta
Marshall, Joseph 30 acres P’matta
Martin, Thomas 30 acres P’matta
McCarthy, John 60 acres N’folk Is.
McManus, James 60 acres N’folk Is.
Mitchell, William 60 acres N’folk Is.
Morley, Joseph 50 acres P’matta
Moulds, William 30 acres P’matta
Munday, John 60 acres N’folk Is.
Nichols, John 30 acres P’matta
Night, Richard 60 acres N’folk Is.
O’Bryen, Thomas 60 acres N’folk Is.
Painter, James 60 acres N’folk Is.
Parish, William 60 acres P’matta
Parr, William 50 acres P’matta
Proctor, James 60 acres N’folk Is.
Pugh, Edward 70 acres P’matta
Ramsey, John 50 acres P’matta
Redman, John 60 acres N’folk Is.
Redmond, James 60 acres N’folk Is.
Reid, William 60 acres P’matta
Richards, John 30 acres P’matta
Richards, Lawrence 60 acres N’folk Is.
Roberts, John 60 acres N’folk Is.
Ruse, James 30 acres N’folk Is.
Schaffer, Phillip 140 acres P’matta
Scott, John 60 acres N’folk Is.
Sculley, Thomas 60 acres N’folk Is.
Silverthorn, John 30 acres P’matta
Simms, William 60 acres N’folk Is.
Spencer, Thomas 60 acres N’folk Is.
Standfield, Daniel 60 acres N’folk Is.
Standley, William 60 acres N’folk Is.
Stuart, James 20 acres P’matta
Strong, William 60 acres N’folk Is.
Summers, John 30 acres P’matta
Tonks, William 60 acres N’folk Is.
Turner, John 10 acres N’folk Is.
Varndell, Edward 30 acres P’matta
Walbourne, James 10 acres N’folk Is.
Watson, Robert 60 acres N’folk Is.
Webb, Robert 60 acres P’matta
White, James 10 acres N’folk Is.
Williams, Charles 30 acres P’matta
William, James 60 acres N’folk Is.
Williams, John 50 acres P’matta
Woodcock, Peter 10 acres N’folk Is.

On the 2d of March, at day-light, we saw the Supply in the road; on which I sent Mr. Dunavan on board her: he soon returned, bringing letters for me from Governor Phillip, who, I learnt, had sent twenty-one men and six women convicts, with three children in the Supply, to be landed on this island. As I had the fullest confidence in the few free persons who were with me, I did not hesitate one moment in receiving the additional number of convicts who were now arrived, although some of them had very bad characters. By the Supply I also received a bushel of potatoes, and some seed-wheat and barley, that had been saved at Port Jackson; and in the course of the day, all the convicts and the greatest part of the provisions and stores were landed. One turn of provisions were got on shore early the next morning, but the surf increasing, no more boats passed that day.

Landing was very practicable on the 4th, and we received the remainder of the provisions and stores; also two three-pounders and their carriages belonging to the Supply, which should have been landed when I first came to the island, but were prevented by the surf. The surf ran so high on the 5th, that no boats could land: at two o’clock the Supply parted her cable, and stood off and on during the night. The Supply’s boats were employed during the 6th, in sweeping for her anchor, as no landing could be attempted; but the surf abating on the 7th, we received every article on shore that was intended for the settlement.

I now ordered the surgeon to examine all the convicts who had lately arrived, in order to discover if any of them were infected with diseases, or troubled with complaints of any kind; but on examination, he found them all healthy.

The Supply having ineffectually swept for her anchor till the morning of the 10th, she made sail for Port Jackson at ten o’clock in the forenoon. The ground in the road off Sydney-Bay is very foul in general, although there may be some clear spots. The Golden-Grove parted her cable in the road, but regained her anchor, which the Supply was not lucky enough to accomplish; and she had the additional misfortune of nearly ruining two new cables in sweeping for it. It is somewhat remarkable, that the beach in Sydney-Bay has at times five feet of sand on the stones, and at other times it is all cleared away: this has happened when the wind has been at south-east, and when the beach was filled with sand, the wind has been at south-west: this probably may be the case in the road.

I gave the convicts who were newly arrived until the 18th, to build habitations for themselves; the others were employed at task-work. The numbers now on the island were as follows, viz.

Officers, marines, and free men, 16

Male convicts,                   50

Female convicts,                 23

Children,                         5

Total                            94

In order to prevent the water from overflowing the cultivated grounds in the upper part of Arthur’s Vale, I set eight labourers to work on the 19th, in cutting a water-way of sixty rods long, by six feet deep.

I have hitherto forborn mentioning the numerous thefts that had almost daily been committed; and, notwithstanding the utmost vigilance, we had not been able to detect any person. Gardens had been constantly plundered; the harness cask, containing the provisions that were daily issued out, had been robbed; and one night an attempt was made to get into the upper part of my house, where the slops were deposited. Great rewards had been offered to tempt one or other to discover their accomplices, but without effect: however, at eleven o’clock in the night of the 23d, Thomas Watson, a convict, was detected in another convict’s house, stealing a bag of flour.

From the number of daring thefts which had been committed, without my being able to fix on the thief, it became necessary to inflict a very severe punishment on this offender; and as I had no authority to give him any very severe corporal chastisement; after examining witnesses upon oath, and fully proving the theft, I ordered him into confinement, with an intention of sending him to Port Jackson to take his trial. In order to prevent these depredations as much as possible in future, I gave orders for the convicts to be mustered in their huts three times every night, and the hour of muster to be constantly changed: this had a good effect, but did not entirely prevent robberies from being committed.

James Davis, a convict, was punished with twenty-four lashes, on the 25th, for using seditious expressions, and throwing away some fish which had been issued, in a contemptuous manner.

On inspecting the seed-wheat, I found the weevil had begun its depredations, on which, I set some of the labourers to winnow and clear it. On the 30th, some atrocious villain stabbed one of the hogs belonging to the crown, which occasioned its death: this, amongst many other actions which happened, of a similar nature, served to show that there are wretches equal to any act of inhumanity and barbarity.

The sugar-cane, which I planted soon after my arrival on the island, being in a very exposed situation, I removed it on the 31st, and planted out 106 very good joints, which were produced from only four canes. The Indian corn, that had been damaged by the hurricane, was reaped this afternoon.

The different employments of the convicts were as follows:

At task-work, clearing away ground for cultivation,           30

Sawyers, sawing boards, for building a store-house,          2              2 free.

Carpenters, building a store-house,                                         2              1 free.

Blacksmith, making fish-hooks, and other necessary work, 1         1 free.

Coble-men fishing,                                                                          3

Gardeners,                                                                                          3              1 free.

Making shingles,                                                                              4

Schoolmaster, 1; officers servants, 3; care of stock, 1,         5

Total                                                                                      50           5

On the 2d of April, three quarters of an acre of ground was sown with wheat, the produce of that ground which had been first cleared on the north side ofMountGeorge. The season for sowing wheat was as yet rather early, but I did it to try different periods, and to see which would answer best.

April On the 5th, (Sunday) after divine service, Thomas Jones, a convict, acquainted me that the term of his transportation expired that day. I had been informed by Governor Phillip that the different terms for which the convicts were sentenced was not known, as the masters of the transports had left the papers necessary for that information with their owners; but that he had wrote to England for them, and until their arrival no steps could be taken, as the convicts words were not sufficient: I therefore informed Thomas Jones that he was at liberty to work for whom he pleased, and if he chose to work for the public good, he would be used the same as others were, until I received further orders concerning him.

An acre of ground, in Arthur’s Vale, was sown with wheat on the 6th; and on the 8th, Noah Mortimer, a convict, was punished with sixty lashes, for refusing to work, on being ordered by the overseer, and being abusive. The 10th, being Good-Friday, I performed divine service, and no work was done on the settlement.

On the 13th, three acres of wheat were sown with four bushels of seed. Every garden vegetable, now growing, were much blighted by west and south-west winds; indeed, this was a very improper time to sow any garden seeds, it being the commencement of winter; but the potatoes I had by me grew out so very fast, that I was obliged to sow them all. I had found the last year that June and July were the best months for sowing the general crop. We had a very heavy gale of wind this day from the south-west, which was the first southerly wind that had blown with any degree of force since last August; and the last year, the southerly winds did not begin until the 10th of April: from which I conclude that southerly and westerly winds are not frequent in the summer; especially as we had not one gale from that quarter during the last summer.

Three acres of wheat were sown in Arthur’s vale on the 16th, and by the 21st eight acres of wheat were up, and had a promising appearance.

As there was a projection of the reef where boats used to land, which, if taken away, would greatly lessen the danger of landing; I set six men to work about removing it on the 22d, with orders to continue at the employment every tide until it was finished.

Notwithstanding every convict had suffered exemplary punishment for their crimes, whenever they were detected; yet this was not sufficient to keep the free people in proper subordination; for on the 26th April, John Williams, a marine, quitted his guard, and raised a quarrel in a convict’s house; the consequence of which was a battle between himself and another marine: on which, I assembled the marines and all the other free people under arms, under the flag-staff, on which the colours were hoisted; and I punished him with twenty-four lashes, for quitting his post, and fighting with his comrade.

Very pleasant Serene fine Weather. at 10 AM performed Divine Service —1 Convict Lame. Confined John Williams Marine for breeding a Quarrell & fighting with one of his Comrades in a Convicts house.

Do Wr at 10 AM Assembled the Marines & Free people under arms; under the Flaggstaff on which the Colours were hoisted & punished John Williams Marine with 1 Dozen Lashes for Challenging his Comrade, & unsoldier like behaviour & one Dozen Lashes Striking & fighting with his Comrade in a Convicts house. 3 Gangs at Task Work Clearing Ground, four Convicts assisting the Mid. & Surgeon—one Gang making Shingles & Clearing away the landing place at ye lowwater Sawyers Sawing board &c for the Store house & Carpenters Employed Variously—

 

11th May 1789 Assembled Every person belonging to Settlement Marines & Free people under arms & Examined Witnesses on Oath against Thos Watson Convict & a Prisoner for stealing a Shirt from James Williams Private Marine.

 

 

I observed on the 7th of May, that all the wheat which hitherto had a very fine appearance, was blighted in many places, and particularly where it was thinnest sown: on examining it, I found it entirely covered with a small black caterpillar, which had eat off the stems within an inch of the ground: these destructive vermin kept on the wheat during the whole month; they began on the lower part of the eight acres that were sown in Arthur’s Vale, and proceeded regularly through it, destroying every blade. We tried various methods to extirpate them, such as rolling the wheat with a heavy roller, and beating it with turf-beaters, in order to kill them, but with little effect; for in an hour’s time they were as numerous as ever, and daily increased in size. I found they were bred from a small moth, vast numbers of which infested the air in the mornings and evenings: the number of these caterpillars on the wheat was incredible; and they were so thick in the gardens that we swept them in heaps: the adjoining rivulet was also covered with them. The whole wheat of eight acres (which was a foot high when these pernicious vermin first attacked it) was eat close to the ground by the 28th, and three acres of it never grew afterwards. Having gone through the gardens and wheat, these destructive insects left us on the 29th.

The carpenters had now finished the new store-house: its dimensions were thirty feet long by eighteen feet wide, and ten feet under the eaves: the sides were covered with weather boarding, and the roof was shingled. I ordered the provisions to be brought from my house and from the surgeon’s, and deposited in the new store-house: the stores were also removed, and lodged there.

The 4th of June, being the anniversary of his Majesty’s birth-day, it was observed as a holiday. The colours were hoisted at sun-rise: at noon, the marines and free people drew up under arms, to the right and left of the two three-pounders which were on the parade, in front of my house. The male convicts were also drawn up on the right, and the females on the left. Three rounds of the guns and musquetry were fired; after which, the whole party gave three cheers, and were dismissed.

In consideration of the behaviour of the convicts on the day when the hurricane happened, and their general conduct since the discovery of the plot, I was induced to let them partake of the general festivity of the day; and ordered half a pint of rum for each man, and a pint of wine for each woman, for them to drink his Majesty’s health: the officers dined at my table, and on our drinking the King’s health after dinner, three rounds of the great guns were fired: in the evening bonfires were lighted up, and the front windows of my house were illuminated with the initials G. R.

When every person was assembled, and before the firing began, I ordered the prisoner, Thomas Watson, who was in confinement for a theft, (and whom I proposed sending to Port Jackson to be tried) to be brought out, and in consideration of the day I forgave him.

The remaining four acres of wheat, which the caterpillars had not totally destroyed, were now shot out again, and had a very promising appearance.

On the 11th, I drilled thirty pints of wheat into sixty roods of ground; and, as I had but little seed left, this was, in my own opinion, disposing of it to the best advantage; especially as it was probable that the increase would be equal to that which had been sown at a broad cast: I also drilled in eighteen pints of marrow-fat peas.

At day-light in the morning of the 13th, we perceived his Majesty’s armed tender, the Supply, in the road: the surf at that time ran very high in Sydney-Bay, and there being but little easterly wind, with a strong flood-tide, she could not get to Ball-Bay before three o’clock in the afternoon; when I received my letters from Governor Phillip, who informed me, that he had sent Lieutenant John Cresswell, of the marines, with fourteen privates, to the island; that Mr. Cresswell was to put himself under my command; and that in case of my death, or absence, the government of the island was to devolve on him. I had also the pleasing satisfaction to find that my conduct was approved of by Governor Phillip.

The surf ran very high on the 14th, until three o’clock in the afternoon, when Lieutenant Cresswell landed with his detachment and part of their baggage; but nothing else could be received on shore until the 17th, when part of the provisions and stores were landed. As another boat was now become necessary for the use of the settlement, I wrote to Lieutenant Ball, requesting him to send his carpenter on shore to build a coble, that being the most convenient sort of boat for going out and coming into this place. The carpenter landed in the afternoon, and immediately got to work in building a boat.

During the 18th, all the provisions were received on shore, except sixteen casks of flour; but the surf increasing very much in the evening, I made a signal for the Supply to hoist the coble in. The sea ran so very high, that no boat could land until the 21st, when we received the remainder of the provisions and stores; after which, the boats were employed in carrying off water for the Supply, and planks for Port Jackson.

Two pecks of wheat were drilled into an acre of ground in Arthur’s Vale, on the 24th; and on the next day, one acre and a quarter was sown with half a bushel of wheat at a broad cast.

We now had very strong gales at south-west, and at nine o’clock in the morning the Supply passed between Nepean Isle and Point Hunter. The gale continuing heavy from the south-west, I sent a person round to the lee side of the island on the 26th, to look for the Supply; but she could not be seen until day-light in the morning of the 30th, when she was perceived hull down to the southward, and working up to the island. By this time the new boat was in great forwardness, and my own workmen being able to finish it, I sent the carpenter of the Supply on board; and at four in the afternoon that vessel made sail for Port Jackson.

Lieutenant Ball had orders to examine a shoal, which was seen by the master of the Golden Grove, on her return from this island in October last, in latitude 29° 25′ south, longitude 159° 59′ east of Greenwich: he was also to look for an island and shoal that were seen by Lieutenant Shortland, in the Alexander transport: the shoal, in latitude 29° 20′ south, longitude 158° 40′ east, and the island 28° 10′ south latitude, and 159° 50′ east longitude. Mr. Shortland named them Sir Charles Middleton’sIslandand Shoal, and imagined they were joined together.

On the 1st of July, the new coble was finished, and her bottom payed: her dimensions were twenty-two feet long, by six feet six inches wide. This business being compleated, the sawyers and carpenters began to erect a house for Lieutenant Cresswell, of eighteen feet long, by 12 feet wide, with a back part nine feet square. The garden in Arthur’s Vale being quite exposed and open, I employed six men to surround it with a wattled hedge.

Edward Gaff, a convict, was punished with 100 lashes on the 6th, for stealing three quarts of wheat: indeed, scarcely a day passed without complaints being made of thefts, which were committed with such dexterity that it was impossible to detect them. That thefts in so small a society should so frequently happen was really astonishing; but when it is considered, that the greatest part of that society were hardened villains, the wonder will cease.

Eleven acres of wheat were now up in Arthur’s Vale, and had a very promising appearance: every vegetable in the gardens were also in a thriving state.

Nothing material happened in the course of this month until the 28th, when a tree fell on John Bryant, a convict, which bruised his head so much that he died two hours afterwards. This man was one among the very few honest convicts which I had on the island.

Two bushels of seed wheat, being the remaining part of what I had left, was sown this day, on the sides ofMountGeorge, on two acres of ground. Most of the marines who came to the island with Lieutenant Cresswell, had now very comfortable huts and good gardens.

In the month of August we had, in general, heavy gales of wind, chiefly at north-west and south-west, attended with rain.

The general employment of the convicts was now as follows:

Clearing away ground for cultivation and other necessary work 30

Sawyers sawing scantlings, and boards for buildings            2 2 free.

Carpenters building a house for Lieutenant Cresswell           2 1 free.

Blacksmith making and repairing necessary iron work            1 1 free.

Coblemen fishing                                               3

Gardeners                                                      2 1 free.

Making shingles                                                4

Schoolmaster 1, officers servants 3, care of stock 1           5

Total                                                         49 5

The 12th, being the anniversary of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales’s birth-day, the colours were hoisted at sun-rise, and it was observed with the same ceremony as his Majesty’s birth-day, except giving liquor to the convicts, as their recent behaviour, with regard to thefts, had totally excluded them from that indulgence. As the wheat in Arthur’s Vale grew very rank, I was advised to crop it, which was done on the 13th: however, I let three acres remain in order to see which way it would be most productive.

The carpenters having finished the shell of Lieutenant Cresswell’s house, I employed them in building an addition to the back part of my habitation, as I was apprehensive of its being blown down by the violent south-west winds, which were now almost constant. After divine service on the 16th, (Sunday) the following orders were read for preserving regularity and good order among the inhabitants of the island.

Orders

I. All persons on the island are regularly to attend muster and divine service, unless prevented by sickness: a disobedience of this order will be punished by extra-work, or by stopping a day’s provisions for the first offence; which, if repeated, will be punished by corporal chastisement.

II. No persons are to absent themselves from their quarters, either by night or day, except they have obtained leave, or are going to their respective work; and if any one is observed lurking about after the watch is set, he will be fired at by the centinel.

III. The working hours are to be regularly attended to, and all persons absent from their work after the drum beats for that purpose, will lose a portion of the time they may save from their tasks; and in case of a second offence, they will be severely punished.

IV. The tasks will be continued as usual, and the time saved by the gangs is at their own disposal: those who distinguish themselves by employing their time in cultivating their gardens, and clearing ground for their own use, will meet with encouragement and reward.

V. If the overseers, or the greatest part of any gang, should have reason to complain of the idleness of any one man belonging to that gang, and the complaint should be found just, the offender will be severely punished.

VI. Those who render themselves unable to work by their neglect or obstinacy, in not building themselves warm huts, or who cut themselves through carelessness, will have a part of their provisions stopped until they are able to go to work again.

VII. All the tools and utensils are to be returned regularly every night to the store-house when the retreat beats; and any person who is found secreting any tool, or any article of the King’s stores, or committing any robbery whatever, will, on detection and conviction, receive such punishment on the island as his Majesty’s Justices of the peace may judge the offence deserves; or the offender will be sent to Port Jackson, to be tried by the criminal court, as the commandant may judge proper.

VIII. It is recommended to every one to be very careful of their cloathing, and every free person or convict is strictly forbid buying or selling any article of slop cloathing: those who disobey this order will be prosecuted for buying or selling the King’s stores, whether free people or convicts.

IX. Whenever it may be necessary to make any complaint, the person making the complaint is to inform the corporal of the guard, who will immediately report it; when the commandant (or, in his absence, Lieutenant John Cresswell,) will hear the complaint and decide upon it.

X. Disobedience of orders, insolence to officers or overseers, or any other improper behaviour, tending to the disturbance of the peace, or hindrance of the King’s service, will meet with severe punishment; and a regular, honest, good behaviour, will meet with encouragement and reward.

His Majesty’s justices of the peace for this island, viz. the Commandant and Lieutenant John Cresswell, (on whom the government of the island devolves, in case of the commandant’s death or absence) have appointed Roger Morley and John Altree, to hold the office of constables; and every person is ordered to be assisting to either or both of them in the execution of their office.

Such were the laws, which our then situations required.

Four acres of ground in Arthur’s Vale were planted with Indian corn on the 24th; and, as the rats had dug up most of that which had been planted in the gardens, I replaced it, putting five grains of corn into each pit. During the remainder of this month, we had heavy gales of wind from the south-west, which turned all the wheat quite black, that was growing on the south side ofMountGeorge: but I did not apprehend that it was otherwise injured than by being kept back. This gale was of longer duration, and blew with greater force than any I had hitherto observed.

On the 29th, Ann Coombs, a female convict, received fifty lashes at the cart’s tail, for defrauding Thomas Jones, of some provisions: this punishment, however, did not deter her from committing crimes of a similar nature; for the very next day she was detected stealing two new check shirts from Francis Mew, a private marine, and was punished with 100 lashes.

The weather during the month of September was variable; we had some heavy gales of wind from the south-west and east-north-east, but they were not of long duration.

Frequent notice has been taken of the destructive effects of the grub-worm, and they were now as troublesome as ever. These pernicious vermin are generated from the eggs of a fly, which are left on the leaves of plants: here they come to life, and daily gathering strength and vigour, they destroy the leaves; and afterwards, falling on the ground, they cut off the roots and stalks. The surgeon, who, with great perseverance and industry, had got a very good garden, and every thing in it in great forwardness, had all his plants and vegetables nearly destroyed by the grub-worm, and most of the other gardens shared the same fate. The mischief done at my garden in Arthur’s Vale was not so great, which I attributed to the quantity of cultivated ground near it; and, probably, when more extensive pieces of ground come to be cleared, the bad effects of the grub-worm will be in a great measure prevented, but at present, these destructive vermin, and the depredations of the convicts, rendered the cultivation of gardens very discouraging to individuals.

The corporal of marines, who was a very industrious young man, had cleared and planted a piece of ground, and by attention and assiduity, had raised a quantity of vegetables, besides a very fine crop of potatoes, which would have yielded him at least five bushels; but, on the evening of the 5th, between sun-set and the time of the watch being set, some villains dug up every one of the potatoes, and destroyed a quantity of other vegetables; and although the convicts were mustered in their huts at sun-set, and three times more during the night, yet the theft was not discovered until the next morning, when a very strict search was made, in order to find out the offender, but to no purpose, as the potatoes were (in the cant phrase) all planted; viz. buried in the ground, so as to be taken out as they were wanted.

This was one of the many acts of villainy that were daily committed by these atrocious wretches.

Catherine Johnson, a female convict, was punished with fifty lashes on the 7th, for abusing the store-keeper, and accusing him of theft wrongfully.

Two acres were sown with Indian corn on the 16th, and the ground being quite shaded from the sun, I employed a gang of labourers to cut down the trees from three acres of land, in order to let the sun in upon the corn. On the 28th, the produce of 240 sets of potatoes, which had been planted on three roods of ground the first of June, were dug up, and yielded five bushels of very fine potatoes.

During the month of October, the weather was in general very mild; the wind chiefly from the south-east. On the 1st, the carpenters, with two men to assist them, began framing a barn, which I proposed to erect in Arthur’s Vale. The grub-worms were still very numerous, notwithstanding the women convicts were daily employed in picking them off the plants and out of the ground: they totally destroyed one acre of Indian corn, and cut off every cabbage and other plants as fast as they sprang up.

As it would be very convenient to have a path to the west side of the island, I employed six men to cut a road from the settlement toMountPitt, and from thence to Anson-Bay, which business was completed on the 21st.

I went out in the morning of the 23d, to survey the west side of Sydney-Bay, in the course of which, I found most of the bones belonging to the body of one of the men who were drowned on the 6th of August, 1788: I brought them to the settlement, where they were interred.

On the 27th, we had a strong gale of wind from the east, attended with heavy rain, which was the first that had happened since the 23d of September, and was much wanted. Fifteen acres of wheat were now in ear, and had a good appearance; and the Indian corn, of which we had seven acres, was in a thriving state, although much thinned by the grub-worm: one acre of barley was also in ear, and the garden vegetables were in great forwardness. The grub-worm had totally disappeared, but still our calamities were not at an end; for the parroquets (of which we had myriads) were constantly destroying the wheat, and the garden productions; insomuch that we were obliged to keep a number of persons employed in beating them away with long poles.

During the month of November, the weather was hot and sultry, with only one shower of rain; the wind from the east-south-east. The carpenters finished the barn on the 9th: its dimensions were 30 feet long by 16 feet wide, and 17 feet under the eaves, with a loft over it. The roof was well shingled, and the sides weather-boarded: in short, it was a complete building, and conveniently situated, being in the center of the cultivated grounds in Arthur’s Vale.

On the 13th, Lieutenant Cresswell turned a turtle in a small bay, to the westward of the settlement, which he distributed amongst the free persons and others, as far as it would go.

Robert Webb, a seaman belonging to the Sirius, went on the 15th, to the valley above the Cascade-Bay; having obtained my permission to become a settler, if Governor Phillip should have no objection to it.

Some barley which had been sown the latter end of May, about three quarters of an acre with one bushel and an half of seed, was cut this day, and the produce was twenty-three bushels of a very fine full grain. The potatoes which were sown during the month of September, in Arthur’s vale, were all running to stalk, and not one potatoe formed at the roots: the fibres were very strong and shooting out of the ground, notwithstanding they had been well earthed: this was probably owing to the very great heat and drought which we had recently experienced. Large flocks of parroquets still infested the wheat, and made great havock in one acre; but as it ripened very fast, I did not apprehend much farther damage from them or the caterpillars, which were again become very numerous.

As it would be necessary to have the hogs and poultry near the granary, during the time of harvest, I employed a party of labourers in bringing logs to make an inclosure round the barn, and other conveniencies for the stock; and on the 30th, we began the wheat harvest.

On the 3d of December, at day-light, the Supply arrived in the road, and soon afterwards, I received my letters from Governor Phillip. In the course of the day, six men and eight women convicts were landed, with some provisions and stores for the settlement. By an order from Governor Phillip, all persons on the island were to be put to two-thirds allowance of provisions, which commenced on the 5th: the settlement at Port Jackson went to this allowance in November. Having received every thing from the Supply, that vessel sailed for Port Jackson on the 7th.

All the labourers were now employed in reaping, stacking, and thatching the wheat, which business was all finished by the 24th. Four acres of the wheat were greatly damaged by some very heavy rain, which fell from the 14th to the 18th, and caused it to shoot out; but this was put into a stack by itself for present consumption. The wheat now reaped had been sown at different periods, notwithstanding which, it was ripe nearly at the same time; but the last sown did not stock so well as that which was put more early in the ground: that which was sown in drills, suffered much from the blighting winds; and, as this island is subject to these winds at all times of the year, the method of drilling wheat or barley in rows, will not answer so well as when sown at a broad cast. The best time for sowing wheat, is from the latter end of May to the middle of June; indeed, that which was sown in August, yielded a very large sound grain; but, (as I have already observed) it did not stock so well as the other.

At sun-rise on the 25th, the colours were hoisted, in observance of Christmas-day; divine service was performed at ten o’clock, and I ordered two hogs, belonging to the crown, to be killed and issued out to the free people and convicts, at the rate of one pound and an half to each person: and, as the crop of wheat had turned out tolerably well, I ordered two pounds of flour to each man, and the women one pound each, to celebrate the festival.

During the month of January, the weather was very variable, with frequent strong gales of wind from the south-east. The general employment of the labourers was clearing away ground for the next season, and turning up the fifteen acres of wheat stubble, threshing, making shingles, cutting logs, to make a log-house for the store-keeper, and other necessary business.

The small union flag had hitherto been used as a signal for landing, but as it could not easily be distinguished from the roads, on the 11th, I had a flag-staff fixed in the front of my house, the lower mast of which was 20 feet long, and the top-mast 36 feet; on which a large union was occasionally to be hoisted.

Some villain stabbed a very fine sow which was near farrowing, on the 18th, but though the strictest enquiry was made, I could not discover who was the perpetrator of this atrocious act.

Most of the labourers were now employed in cutting down, gathering, and cleaning the Indian corn, a vast quantity of which was destroyed by the parroquets, although men were constantly employed in beating them off with long poles.

A greater number of people were sick during this month, than had been the case since my landing on the island. The complaint, in general, was a diarrhoea, but those who had this disorder were soon recovered. The surgeon was of opinion that the great change of weather which had happened, joined to the great quantity of vegetables that were daily consumed, was the cause of this sickness.

The appearance of a vessel in the road at day-light in the morning of the 29th, caused the greatest acclamations of joy through the whole settlement; every person imagining that ships had arrived from England; especially as the Supply had been with us so recently: but, presently afterwards, we perceived it to be that vessel; and on receiving my letters from the governor, I found that no ships had arrived from our native country; which piece of intelligence being circulated through the settlement, a dejection took place equal to the joy that was visible a short time before.

Twenty-two male convicts and one female arrived by the Supply, but no provisions were sent along with them, there being only a sufficient quantity at Port Jackson to serve until the latter end of May, at the present allowance; and as our crops had been good, and our resources, with respect to fish and vegetables, were greater than at Port Jackson, the governor had thought proper to send this additional number of convicts.

Our present numbers were now as follow, viz.

Civil and military, 32

Male convicts,      79

Female convicts,    33

Children,            5

Total              149

I was also informed by Governor Phillip, that as it was necessary for the Sirius to have her full complement of officers, he had ordered me to be discharged from that ship; and had appointed Mr. Newton Fowell to be second-lieutenant in my room, and Mr. Henry Waterhouse to be third-lieutenant, instead of Lieutenant George William Maxwell, who was reported by the surgeons to be insane.

Having received all the convicts from the Supply, and sent my letters for Governor Phillip on board, she set sail for Port Jackson on the 2d of February.

During this month we had heavy gales of wind, with some intervals of fine weather, and the rain becoming frequent, I ordered sheds to be built over the saw-pits, that the sawyers might work without interruption.

Those few amongst the convicts who had been industrious, were now rewarded for it, as some had raised from one thousand to fifteen hundred cobs of Indian corn; which, together with the fish that was procured from time to time, was of great service to them now that their allowance of salt provisions was reduced. The remainder of the Indian corn was got in on the 19th.

Richard Phillimore, a convict, had informed me that the term of his transportation expired on the 16th of January; and having taken the oath administered on that occasion, he signified a wish of becoming a settler: as he was a sober, industrious man, I gave him time to consider of it, and to look out for a situation where he would like to settle at: he informed me on the 22d, that he still was desirous of fixing on the island, and had found a spot where he wished to reside; on which, I sent some labourers to build him an house, and to clear away a little ground for a commencement; I also gave him a sow with young, and some poultry, and he was fully of opinion, that in one year, or two at farthest, he should be able to support himself, without any assistance from the settlement.

During the month of March, we had a deal of blowing weather, and much rain; the wind generally from the south-west. The labourers were employed in clearing ground for cultivation, husking and stripping Indian corn, and other necessary work; and six men were sawing frames for building barracks.

 

 

Notwithstanding every convict had suffered exemplary punishment for their crimes, whenever they were detected; yet this was not sufficient to keep the free people in proper subordination; for on Sunday 26th April,

Very pleasant Serene fine Weather. at 10 AM performed Divine Service —1 Convict Lame. Confined John Williams Marine for breeding a Quarrell & fighting with one of his Comrades in a Convicts house.

Do Wr at 10 AM Assembled the Marines & Free people under arms; under the Flaggstaff on which the Colours were hoisted & punished John Williams Marine with 1 Dozen Lashes for Challenging his Comrade, & unsoldier like behaviour & one Dozen Lashes Striking & fighting with his Comrade in a Convicts house.

 

11th May 1789 Assembled Every person belonging to Settlement Marines & Free people under arms & Examined Witnesses on Oath against Thos Watson Convict & a Prisoner for stealing a Shirt from James [??] Williams Private Marine.

 

 

The 4th of June, being the anniversary of his Majesty’s birth-day, it was observed as a holiday. The colours were hoisted at sun-rise: at noon, the marines and free people drew up under arms, to the right and left of the two three-pounders which were on the parade, in front of my house. The male convicts were also drawn up on the right, and the females on the left. Three rounds of the guns and musquetry were fired; after which, the whole party gave three cheers, and were dismissed.

In consideration of the behaviour of the convicts on the day when the hurricane happened, and their general conduct since the discovery of the plot, I was induced to let them partake of the general festivity of the day; and ordered half a pint of rum for each man, and a pint of wine for each woman, for them to drink his Majesty’s health: the officers dined at my table, and on our drinking the King’s health after dinner, three rounds of the great guns were fired: in the evening bonfires were lighted up, and the front windows of my house were illuminated with the initials G. R.

When every person was assembled, and before the firing began, I ordered the prisoner, Thomas Watson, who was in confinement for a theft, (and whom I proposed sending to Port Jackson to be tried) to be brought out, and in consideration of the day I forgave him.

 

At day-light in the morning of the 13th June, we perceived his Majesty’s armed tender, the Supply, in the road: the surf at that time ran very high in Sydney-Bay, and there being but little easterly wind, with a strong flood-tide, she could not get to Ball-Bay before three o’clock in the afternoon; when I received my letters from Governor Phillip, who informed me, that he had sent Lieutenant John Cresswell, of the marines, with fourteen privates, to the island; that Mr. Cresswell was to put himself under my command; and that in case of my death, or absence, the government of the island was to devolve on him.

 

Sunday 14th       Little Winds E.S.E.          Bad landing till High Water.                       Moderate Gales & Cloudy Wr the Surf high untill high Water at 3 P.M. then landed from the Supply Lieut John Cresswell & 14 Private Marines with a part of their Baggage.

Supply sails 30Th June

 

A lot more Marines makes a big difference:

 

26th June; Punished—[William] Holmes Convict with 3 dozen lashes for absenting himself from his task.

 

Edward Gaff, a convict, was punished with 100 lashes at 2 P.M. on the 6th July, for stealing three quarts of wheat: ‘out of ye bag of Wheat which he was carrying to Arthurs Vale to be sowed there.’

 

 

Tuesday 28th July: NE    A great Sea but little Surf. I am very unfortunate in ye loss of this Man As he was one, amongst ye very few good men that are here           Strong Gales & dark Gloomy Weather with Rain People all employed as before. at 10 AM a large tree fell on John Bryant Convict working in Arthurs Vale & bruised his head so much that he died in two hours. at 4 PM interred ye DD. & read ye Funeral service over him 1 Lame & 2ss.

 

12th August:Wednesday               12th       Do          Do                          Fresh Gales with a few heavy Squalls of Rain & Wind at Daylight hoisted ye Colours in observance of His Royal Highness ye Prince of Wales’s birth day. At Noon fired 3 Rounds of Artillery The Troops drawn up on the Parade fired 3 Rounds of Musquets after which the Whole gave three Cheers. Excused ye convicts from work. except giving liquor to the convicts, as their recent behaviour, with regard to thefts, had totally excluded them from that indulgence.

 

29th August: Saturday     29th       ENE       good Landing.   punished Ann Coombs [John Bryant’s widow] Female Convict with 50 lashes for defrauding Thos Jones of a Quantity of Provisions—

 

Sunday 30th August: Moderate Breezes & Very pleasant Wr at 10 AM performed Divine Service. at 1 P.M. punished Ann Coombs Female Convict with 100 Lashes for Stealing two Cheque Shirts from Francis Mee Private Marine, which she hid & refused to produce them—

 

Saturday              5th September    ENE       Do          This Evening—Some Notorious Villians Stole almost Every Article of Vegetables out ofCorporalGovensGarden which he had with great industry & perseverance Cleared & Cultivated, The Theft Must have been committed between dark & eight o’clock As all ye Convicts are mustered in their houses after the Watch is sett. a very strict search was made, in order to find out the offender, but to no purpose, as the potatoes were (in the cant phrase) all planted; viz. buried in the ground, so as to be taken out as they were wanted.

This was one of the many acts of villainy that were daily committed by these atrocious wretches.

 

7th September: Punished Catherine Johnson Female Convict with 50 lashes

 

14th September: One Female Child born.

 

Friday 9th October: Punished Noah Mortimer, Thos Watson & Jno Holmes Convicts with 2 Dozen lashes each for loitering & Idling their time at Work —

 

28th October: Joseph Long with 100 Lashes for lending out Shoes which he had to mend —

 

3rd December: Thursday                3rd         SSW       Do                          Fresh Breezes & pleasant Weather at Daylight perceived His Majesties Armed Tender Supply at 8 Reced ye Letters & in ye Course of the day six men and eight Women Convicts landed & a part of the Provisions & Stores. The people all employed as before. Reaping Wheat.

 

Monday                14th       NNW     good Landing                     Strong Gales of Wind & very dark Cloudy Wr threatning much Rain. Most of ye People Employed Getting in the Harvest Thrashing &c. at Noon punished Jno Anderson Convict with 200 Lashes for Robbing a Garden, pursuant to the Sentence of the two Justices & Wm Blackhall Convict with 50 lashes for treating Mr Dunnavan with Contempt & ye Commandants orders with Insolence —

 

Thursday             24th December   Do          Do          Sent ye Coble out but caught only 16 fish.              Do Wr Gave the People this day on account of their Working last Sunday.

Friday   25th       ESE        Good Landing                    Moderate breezes & pleasant Wr atSunrisehoisted ye Colours in observance of Christmas Day. at 10 AM performed Divine Service killed 2 Hogs belonging to the Crown Wt 180 lb & issued them 1 lb & ½ to each person & as our Crop of Wheat has been a good one gave Them 2 lb of Flour each Man & one pound to the Women —

Saturday              26th       SW         Do                          Do Wr People all employed, Working for themselves.

 

Sunday 3rd         Do          Do                          Do Wr at 10 AM Performed Divine Service A Male Child born —

 

18th January: 1790 Some of the Convicts killed a Sow belonging to the Crown which could not be discovered

 

Wednesy                20th        Do           Do           During this Month a greater Number of people have been sick than has been the Case since I landed The Complaint is mostly a diarrhoe, but they soon recover of it. The Surgeon thinks it is owing to the Vast quantitys of Vegetables that are eaten —

The appearance of a vessel in the road at day-light in the morning of the 29th January, Twenty-two male convicts and one female arrived by the Supply, but no provisions were sent along with them,

 

Our present numbers were now as follow, viz.

Civil and military,            32

Male convicts,                   79

Female convicts,              33

Children,                             5

Total                                      149

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday             21st        ENE       Do                          Do Wr Employed as before Gathering Indian Corn. Punished James Burn Convict with 25 lashes for Stealing Indian Corn —

 

22nd February: Punished Jno Boyle Convict with 25 lashes for absenting himself from his Work — 10 Sick & lame

 

 

 

 

 

Advertisements
%d bloggers like this: